SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the care of kidney transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2009; 9(Suppl 3): S1S155.
  • 2
    Kotton CN, Kumar D, Caliendo AM, et al. International consensus guidelines on the management of cytomegalovirus in solid organ transplantation. Transplantation 2010; 89: 779795.
  • 3
    Humar A, Snydman D. Cytomegalovirus in solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2009; 9(Suppl 4): S7886.
  • 4
    Torre-Cisneros J, Farinas MA, Caston JJ, et al. GESITRA-SEIMC/REIPI recommendations for the management of cytomegalovirus infection in solid-organ transplant patients. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 2011; 29: 735758.
  • 5
    Freeman RB, Jr. The “indirect” effects of cytomegalovirus infection. Am J Transplant 2009; 9: 24532458.
  • 6
    Fishman JA. Infection in solid-organ transplant recipients. N Engl J Med 2007; 357: 26012614.
  • 7
    Paget G, Naicker S. Considering prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus disease in cytomegalovirus positive renal transplant recipients from positive donors in a resource limited south african public hospital. J Nephrol Therapeutic 2011; 1: 104.
  • 8
    Abate D, Saldan A, Fiscon M, et al. Evaluation of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cell immune reconstitution revealed that baseline antiviral immunity, prophylaxis, or preemptive therapy but not antithymocyte globulin treatment contribute to CMV-specific T cell reconstitution in kidney transplant recipients. J Infect Dis 2010; 202: 585594.
  • 9
    Kliem V, Fricke L, Wollbrink T, Burg M, Radermacher J, Rohde F. Improvement in long-term renal graft survival due to CMV prophylaxis with oral ganciclovir: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Am J Transplant 2008; 8: 975983.
  • 10
    Atabani SF, Smith C, Atkinson C, et al. Cytomegalovirus replication kinetics in solid organ transplant recipients managed by preemptive therapy. Am J Transplant 2012; 12: 24572464.
  • 11
    Humar A, Lebranchu Y, Vincenti F, et al. The efficacy and safety of 200 days valganciclovir cytomegalovirus prophylaxis in high-risk kidney transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2010; 10: 12281237.
  • 12
    Humar A, Limaye AP, Blumberg EA, et al. Extended valganciclovir prophylaxis in D+/R− kidney transplant recipients is associated with long-term reduction in cytomegalovirus disease: Two-year results of the IMPACT study. Transplantation 2010; 90: 14271431.
  • 13
    Palmer SM, Limaye AP, Banks M, et al. Extended valganciclovir prophylaxis to prevent cytomegalovirus after lung transplantation: A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 2010; 152: 761769.
  • 14
    Wiita AP, Roubinian N, Khan Y, et al. Cytomegalovirus disease and infection in lung transplant recipients in the setting of planned indefinite valganciclovir prophylaxis. Transpl Infect Dis 2012; 14: 248258.
  • 15
    Luan FL, Kommareddi M, Ojo AO. Universal prophylaxis is cost effective in cytomegalovirus serology-positive kidney transplant patients. Transplantation 2011; 91: 237244.
  • 16
    Blumberg EA, Hauser IA, Stanisic S, et al. Prolonged prophylaxis with valganciclovir is cost effective in reducing posttransplant cytomegalovirus disease within the United States. Transplantation 2010; 90: 14201426.
  • 17
    Luan FL, Stuckey LJ, Park JM, Kaul D, Cibrik D, Ojo A. Six-month prophylaxis is cost effective in transplant patients at high risk for cytomegalovirus infection. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20: 24492458.
  • 18
    Helantera I, Kyllonen L, Lautenschlager I, Salmela K, Koskinen P. Primary CMV infections are common in kidney transplant recipients after 6 months valganciclovir prophylaxis. Am J Transplant 2010; 10: 20262032.
  • 19
    Arthurs SK, Eid AJ, Pedersen RA, et al. Delayed-onset primary cytomegalovirus disease and the risk of allograft failure and mortality after kidney transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46: 840846.
  • 20
    Boudreault AA, Xie H, Rakita RM, et al. Risk factors for late-onset cytomegalovirus disease in donor seropositive/recipient seronegative kidney transplant recipients who receive antiviral prophylaxis. Transpl Infect Dis 2011; 13: 244249.
  • 21
    Valentine VG, Weill D, Gupta MR, et al. Ganciclovir for cytomegalovirus: A call for indefinite prophylaxis in lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 2008; 27: 875881.
  • 22
    Snydman DR. Putting the IMPACT study into perspective: Should CMV prophylaxis be extended to 6 months for high risk transplants? Am J Transplant 2011; 11: 67.
  • 23
    Lisboa LF, Preiksaitis JK, Humar A, Kumar D. Clinical utility of molecular surveillance for cytomegalovirus after antiviral prophylaxis in high-risk solid organ transplant recipients. Transplantation 2011; 92: 10631068.
  • 24
    San Juan R, Aguado JM, Lumbreras C, et al. Impact of current transplantation management on the development of cytomegalovirus disease after renal transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 47: 875882.
  • 25
    Ozaki KS, Camara NO, Nogueira E, et al. The use of sirolimus in ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus infections in renal transplant recipients. Clin Transplant 2007; 21: 675680.
  • 26
    Fortun J, Martin-Davila P, Pascual J, et al. Immunosuppressive therapy and infection after kidney transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis 2010; 12: 397405.
  • 27
    Cervera C, Fernandez-Ruiz M, Valledor A, et al. Epidemiology and risk factors for late infection in solid organ transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis 2011; 13: 598607.
  • 28
    Ekberg H, Bernasconi C, Noldeke J, et al. Cyclosporine, tacrolimus and sirolimus retain their distinct toxicity profiles despite low doses in the Symphony study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2010; 25: 20042010.
  • 29
    Brennan DC, Legendre C, Patel D, et al. Cytomegalovirus incidence between everolimus versus mycophenolate in de novo renal transplants: Pooled analysis of three clinical trials. Am J Transplant 2011; 11: 24532462.
  • 30
    Hodson EM, Craig JC, Strippoli GF, Webster AC. Antiviral medications for preventing cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; (2): CD003774.
  • 31
    Hodson EM, Barclay PG, Craig JC, et al. Antiviral medications for preventing cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2005; (4): CD003774.
  • 32
    Toussaint ND, Tan MB, Nicholls K, Walker RG, Cohney SJ. Low-dose valaciclovir and cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin to prevent cytomegalovirus disease in high-risk renal transplant recipients. Nephrology 2011; 16: 113117.
  • 33
    Product Monograph Valcyte® Hoffmann-La Roche Limited. 2010. Available at: http://www.gene.com/gene/products/information/valcyte/pdf/pi.pdf. Accessed June 18, 2011.
  • 34
    Cytovene. 2001; Available at: http://www.drugs.com/mmx/cytovene.html. Accessed June 18, 2011.
  • 35
    Paya C, Humar A, Dominguez E, et al. Efficacy and safety of valganciclovir vs. oral ganciclovir for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2004; 4: 611620.
  • 36
    Monforte V, Lopez C, Santos F, et al. A multicenter study of valganciclovir prophylaxis up to day 120 in CMV-seropositive lung transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2009; 9: 11341141.
  • 37
    Paraskeva M, Bailey M, Levvey BJ, et al. Cytomegalovirus replication within the lung allograft is associated with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Am J Transplant 2011; 11: 21902196.
  • 38
    Levitsky J, Singh N, Wagener MM, Stosor V, Abecassis M, Ison MG. A survey of CMV prevention strategies after liver transplantation. Am J Transplant 2008; 8: 158161.
  • 39
    Shiley KT, Gasink LB, Barton TD, Pfeiffenberger P, Olthoff KM, Blumberg EA. Increased incidence of cytomegalovirus infection in high-risk liver transplant recipients receiving valganciclovir prophylaxis versus ganciclovir prophylaxis. Liver Transplant 2009; 15: 963967.
  • 40
    Bonaros N, Mayer B, Schachner T, Laufer G, Kocher A. CMV-hyperimmune globulin for preventing cytomegalovirus infection and disease in solid organ transplant recipients: A meta-analysis. Clin Transplant 2008; 22: 8997.
  • 41
    Snydman DR, Kistler KD, Ulsh P, Morris J. Cytomegalovirus prevention and long-term recipient and graft survival in pediatric heart transplant recipients. Transplantation 2010; 90: 14321438.
  • 42
    Benmarzouk-Hidalgo OJ, Cisneros JM, Cordero E, et al. Therapeutic effect of the acquisition of cytomegalovirus-specific immune response during preemptive treatment. Transplantation 2011; 91: 927933.
  • 43
    Lochmanova A, Lochman I, Tomaskova H, et al. Quantiferon-CMV test in prediction of cytomegalovirus infection after kidney transplantation. Transplant Proc 2010; 42: 35743577.
  • 44
    Abate D, Fiscon M, Saldan A, et al. Human Cytomegalovirus (CMV) specific T-cell immune reconstitution in pre-emptive treated heart transplant recipients identifies critical subjects at risk of infection. J Clin Microbiol 2012; 50: 19741980.
  • 45
    Gerna G, Lilleri D, Chiesa A, et al. Virologic and immunologic monitoring of cytomegalovirus to guide preemptive therapy in solid-organ transplantation. Am J Transplant 2011; 11: 24632471.
  • 46
    Sester M, Sester U, Gärtner B, et al. Levels of virus-specific CD4 T cells correlate with cytomegalovirus control and predict virus-induced disease after renal transplantation. Transplantation 2001; 71: 12871294.
  • 47
    Gerna G, Lilleri D, Fornara C, et al. Monitoring of human cytomegalovirus-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell immunity in patients receiving solid organ transplantation. Am J Transplant 2006; 6: 23562364.
  • 48
    Kumar D, Chernenko S, Moussa G, et al. Cell-mediated immunity to predict cytomegalovirus disease in high-risk solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2009; 9: 12141222.
  • 49
    Radha R, Jordan S, Puliyanda D, et al. Cellular immune responses to cytomegalovirus in renal transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 110117.
  • 50
    Sester U, Gärtner BC, Wilkens H, et al. Differences in CMV-specific T-cell levels and long-term susceptibility to CMV infection after kidney, heart and lung transplantation. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 14831489.
  • 51
    Sester U, Presser D, Dirks J, Gärtner BC, Köhler H, Sester M. PD-1 expression and IL-2 loss of cytomegalovirus- specific T cells correlates with viremia and reversible functional anergy. Am J Transplant 2008; 8: 14861497.
  • 52
    Harari A, Vallelian F, Meylan PR, Pantaleo G. Functional heterogeneity of memory CD4 T cell responses in different conditions of antigen exposure and persistence. J Immunol 2005; 174: 10371045.
  • 53
    Clari MA, Munoz-Cobo B, Solano C, et al. Performance of the QuantiFERON(R)-cytomegalovirus (CMV) assay for detecting and estimating the magnitude and functionality of the CMV-specific IFN-gamma CD8 +T-cell response in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. Clin Vaccine Immunol 2012; 19: 791796.
  • 54
    Weber B, Fall EM, Berger A, Doerr HW. Screening of blood donors for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) IgG antibody with an enzyme immunoassay using recombinant antigens. J Clin Virol 1999; 14: 173181.
  • 55
    Seed CR, Piscitelli LM, Maine GT, et al. Validation of an automated immunoglobulin G-only cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody screening assay and an assessment of the risk of transfusion transmitted CMV from seronegative blood. Transfusion 2009; 49: 134145.
  • 56
    Lazzarotto T, Brojanac S, Maine GT, Landini MP. Search for cytomegalovirus-specific immunoglobulin M: Comparison between a new western blot, conventional western blot, and nine commercially available assays. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 1997; 4: 483486.
  • 57
    Humar A, Mazzulli T, Moussa G, et al. Clinical utility of cytomegalovirus (CMV) serology testing in high-risk CMV D+/R− transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 10651070.
  • 58
    Rayes N, Seehofer D, Lullius SG, et al. Monitoring of human cytomegalovirus, HHV-6 and HHV-7 infection in kidney transplant recipients by molecular methods to predict HCMV disease after transplantation: A prospective study. Ann Transplant 2005; 10: 2328.
  • 59
    Schroeder R, Michelon T, Fagundes I, et al. Antigenemia for cytomegalovirus in renal transplantation: Choosing a cutoff for the diagnosis criteria in cytomegalovirus disease. Transplant Proc 2005; 37: 27812783.
  • 60
    Baldanti F, Lilleri D, Gerna G. Monitoring human cytomegalovirus infection in transplant recipients. J Clin Virol 2008; 41: 237241.
  • 61
    Gerna G, Baldanti F, Lilleri D, et al. Human cytomegalovirus pp67 mRNAemia versus pp65 antigenemia for guiding preemptive therapy in heart and lung transplant recipients: A prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label trial. Transplantation 2003; 75: 10121019.
  • 62
    Villa M, Lage E, Ballesteros S, et al. Preemptive therapy for the prevention of cytomegalovirus disease following heart transplantation directed by PP65 antigenemia. Transplant Proc 2003; 35: 732734.
  • 63
    Caliendo AM, St George K, Allega J, Bullotta AC, Gilbane L, Rinaldo CR. Distinguishing cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and disease with CMV nucleic acid assays. J Clin Microbiol 2002; 40: 15811586.
  • 64
    Lao WC, Lee D, Burroughs A, et al. Use of polymerase chain reaction to provide prognostic information of human cytomegalovirus disease after liver transplantation. J Med Virol 1997; 51: 152158.
  • 65
    Razonable RR, van Cruijsen H, Brown RA, et al. Dynamics of cytomegalovirus replication during preemptive therapy with oral ganciclovir. J Infect Dis 2003; 187: 18011808.
  • 66
    Rollag H, Sagedal S, Kristiansen KI, et al. Cytomegalovirus DNA concentration in plasma predicts development of cytomegalovirus disease in kidney transplant recipients. Clin Microbiol Infect 2002; 8: 431434.
  • 67
    Emery VC, Sabin CA, Cope AV, Gor D, Hassan-Walker AF, Griffiths PD. Application of viral-load kinetics to identify patients who develop cytomegalovirus disease after transplantation. Lancet 2000; 355: 20322036.
  • 68
    Humar A, Gregson D, Caliendo AM, et al. Clinical utility of quantitative cytomegalovirus viral load determination for predicting cytomegalovirus disease in liver transplant recipients. Transplantation 1999; 68: 13051311.
  • 69
    Humar A, Kumar D, Boivin G, Caliendo AM. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) virus load kinetics to predict recurrent disease in solid-organ transplant patients with CMV disease. J Infect Dis 2002; 186: 829833.
  • 70
    Razonable RR, Brown RA, Wilson J, et al. The clinical use of various blood compartments for cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA quantitation in transplant recipients with CMV disease. Transplantation 2002; 73: 968973.
  • 71
    Tang W, Elmore SH, Fan H, Thorne LB, Gulley ML. Cytomegalovirus DNA measurement in blood and plasma using Roche LightCycler CMV quantification reagents. Diagn Mol Pathol 2008; 17: 166173.
  • 72
    Hamprecht K, Steinmassl M, Einsele H, Jahn G. Discordant detection of human cytomegalovirus DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, granulocytes and plasma: Correlation to viremia and HCMV infection. J Clin Virol 1998; 11: 125136.
  • 73
    Koidl C, Bozic M, Marth E, Kessler HH. Detection of CMV DNA: Is EDTA whole blood superior to EDTA plasma? J Virol Methods 2008; 154: 210212.
  • 74
    Pang XL, Fox JD, Fenton JM, Miller GG, Caliendo AM, Preiksaitis JK. Interlaboratory comparison of cytomegalovirus viral load assays. Am J Transplant 2009; 9: 258268.
  • 75
    Fryer JF, Heath AB, Anderson R, Minor PD, Group tCS. Collaborative study to evaluate the proposed 1st WHO International Standard for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) for nucleic acid amplification (NAT)-based assays. WHO ECBS (Expert Committee on Biological Standardization) Report 2010; WHO/BS/10.2138.
  • 76
    Kraft CS, Armstrong WS, Caliendo AM. Interpreting quantitative cytomegalovirus DNA testing: Understanding the laboratory perspective. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 54: 17931797.
  • 77
    Caliendo AM, St George K, Kao SY, et al. Comparison of quantitative cytomegalovirus (CMV) PCR in plasma and CMV antigenemia assay: Clinical utility of the prototype Amplicor CMV Monitor test in transplant recipients. J Clin Microbiol 2000; 38: 21222127.
  • 78
    Piiparinen H, Hockerstedt K, Gronhagen-Riska C, Lautenschlager I. Comparison of two quantitative CMV PCR tests, Cobas Amplicor CMV Monitor and TaqMan assay, and pp65-antigenemia assay in the determination of viral loads from peripheral blood of organ transplant patients. J Clin Virol 2004; 30: 258266.
  • 79
    Lisboa LF, Asberg A, Kumar D, et al. The clinical utility of whole blood versus plasma cytomegalovirus viral load assays for monitoring therapeutic response. Transplantation 2011; 91: 231236.
  • 80
    Riise GC, Andersson R, Bergstrom T, Lundmark A, Nilsson FN, Olofsson S. Quantification of cytomegalovirus DNA in BAL fluid: A longitudinal study in lung transplant recipients. Chest 2000; 118: 16531660.
  • 81
    Westall GP, Michaelides A, Williams TJ, Snell GI, Kotsimbos TC. Human cytomegalovirus load in plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: A longitudinal study of lung transplant recipients. J Infect Dis 2004; 190: 10761083.
  • 82
    Chemaly RF, Yen-Lieberman B, Castilla EA, et al. Correlation between viral loads of cytomegalovirus in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from lung transplant recipients determined by histology and immunohistochemistry. J Clin Microbiol 2004; 42: 21682172.
  • 83
    Gerna G, Lilleri D, Rognoni V, et al. Preemptive therapy for systemic and pulmonary human cytomegalovirus infection in lung transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2009; 9: 11421150.
  • 84
    Pillay D, Ali AA, Liu SF, Kops E, Sweny P, Griffiths PD. The prognostic significance of positive CMV cultures during surveillance of renal transplant recipients. Transplantation 1993; 56: 103108.
  • 85
    Solans EP, Yong S, Husain AN, Eichorst M, Gattuso P. Bronchioloalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of CMV pneumonitis in lung transplant recipients: An immunocytochemical study. Diagn Cytopathol 1997; 16: 350352.
  • 86
    Ljungman P, Griffiths P, Paya C. Definitions of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34: 10941097.
  • 87
    Lautenschlager I, Halme L, Hockerstedt K, Krogerus L, Taskinen E. Cytomegalovirus infection of the liver transplant: Virological, histological, immunological, and clinical observations. Transpl Infect Dis 2006; 8: 2130.
  • 88
    Halme L, Lempinen M, Arola J, Sarkio S, Hockerstedt K, Lautenschlager I. High frequency of gastroduodenal cytomegalovirus infection in liver transplant patients. Apmis 2008; 116: 99106.
  • 89
    McGavin JK, Goa KL. Ganciclovir: An update of its use in the prevention of cytomegalovirus infection and disease in transplant recipients. Drugs 2001; 61: 11531183.
  • 90
    Emery VC, Griffiths PD. Prediction of cytomegalovirus load and resistance patterns after antiviral chemotherapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2000; 97: 80398044.
  • 91
    Chou SW. Cytomegalovirus drug resistance and clinical implications. Transpl Infect Dis 2001; 3(Suppl 2): 2024.
  • 92
    Sia IG, Wilson JA, Groettum CM, Espy MJ, Smith TF, Paya CV. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA load predicts relapsing CMV infection after solid organ transplantation. J Infect Dis 2000; 181: 717720.
  • 93
    Asberg A, Humar A, Jardine AG, et al. Long-term outcomes of CMV disease treatment with valganciclovir versus IV ganciclovir in solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2009; 9: 12051213.
  • 94
    Eid AJ, Arthurs SK, Deziel PJ, Wilhelm MP, Razonable RR. Clinical predictors of relapse after treatment of primary gastrointestinal cytomegalovirus disease in solid organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2010; 10: 157161.
  • 95
    Falagas ME, Snydman DR, Griffith J, Werner BG, Freeman R, Rohrer R. Clinical and epidemiological predictors of recurrent cytomegalovirus disease in orthotopic liver transplant recipients. Boston center for liver transplantation CMVIG study group. Clin Infect Dis 1997; 25: 314317.
  • 96
    Humar A, Uknis M, Carlone-Jambor C, Gruessner RW, Dunn DL, Matas A. Cytomegalovirus disease recurrence after ganciclovir treatment in kidney and kidney-pancreas transplant recipients. Transplantation 1999; 67: 9497.
  • 97
    Shanahan A, Malani PN, Kaul DR. Relapsing cytomegalovirus infection in solid organ transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis 2009; 11: 513518.
  • 98
    Boeckh M, Nichols WG. Immunosuppressive effects of beta-herpesviruses. Herpes 2003; 10: 1216.
  • 99
    Asberg A, Jardine AG, Bignamini AA, et al. Effects of the intensity of immunosuppressive therapy on outcome of treatment for CMV disease in organ transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2010; 10: 18811888.
  • 100
    Einsele H, Roosnek E, Rufer N, et al. Infusion of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific T cells for the treatment of CMV infection not responding to antiviral chemotherapy. Blood 2002; 99: 39163922.
  • 101
    Brestrich G, Zwinger S, Fischer A, et al. Adoptive T-cell therapy of a lung transplanted patient with severe CMV disease and resistance to antiviral therapy. Am J Transplant 2009; 9: 16791684.
  • 102
    Boivin G, Goyette N, Gilbert C, Humar A, Covington E. Clinical impact of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus infections in solid organ transplant patients. Transpl Infect Dis 2005; 7: 166170.
  • 103
    Limaye AP, Corey L, Koelle DM, Davis CL, Boeckh M. Emergence of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus disease among recipients of solid-organ transplants. Lancet 2000; 356: 645649.
  • 104
    Marfori JE, Exner MM, Marousek GI, Chou S, Drew WL. Development of new cytomegalovirus UL97 and DNA polymerase mutations conferring drug resistance after valganciclovir therapy in allogeneic stem cell recipients. J Clin Virol 2007; 38: 120125.
  • 105
    Li F, Kenyon KW, Kirby KA, Fishbein DP, Boeckh M, Limaye AP. Incidence and clinical features of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus disease in heart transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45: 439447.
  • 106
    Limaye AP. Ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus in organ transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35: 866872.
  • 107
    Myhre HA, Haug Dorenberg D, Kristiansen KI, et al. Incidence and outcomes of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus infections in 1244 kidney transplant recipients. Transplantation 2011; 92: 217223.
  • 108
    Hantz S, Garnier-Geoffroy F, Mazeron MC, et al. Drug-resistant cytomegalovirus in transplant recipients: A French cohort study. J Antimicrob Chemother 2010; 65: 26282640.
  • 109
    Eid AJ, Arthurs SK, Deziel PJ, Wilhelm MP, Razonable RR. Emergence of drug-resistant cytomegalovirus in the era of valganciclovir prophylaxis: Therapeutic implications and outcomes. Clin Transplant 2008; 22: 162170.
  • 110
    Couzi L, Helou S, Bachelet T, et al. High incidence of anticytomegalovirus drug resistance among D+R− kidney transplant recipients receiving preemptive therapy. Am J Transplant 2012; 12: 202209.
  • 111
    Lurain NS, Chou S. Antiviral drug resistance of human cytomegalovirus. Clin Microbiol Rev 2010; 23: 689712.
  • 112
    Gilbert C, Bestman-Smith J, Boivin G. Resistance of herpesviruses to antiviral drugs: Clinical impacts and molecular mechanisms. Drug Resist Updat 2002; 5: 88114.
  • 113
    Chou S. Cytomegalovirus UL97 mutations in the era of ganciclovir and maribavir. Rev Med Virol 2008; 18: 233246.
  • 114
    Chou S, Lurain NS, Thompson KD, Miner RC, Drew WL. Viral DNA polymerase mutations associated with drug resistance in human cytomegalovirus. J Infect Dis 2003; 188: 3239.
  • 115
    Gilbert C, Boivin G. Human cytomegalovirus resistance to antiviral drugs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2005; 49: 873883.
  • 116
    Boivin G, Goyette N, Gilbert C, Covington E. Analysis of cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase (UL54) mutations in solid organ transplant patients receiving valganciclovir or ganciclovir prophylaxis. J Med Virol 2005; 77: 425429.
  • 117
    Chou S, Marousek GI, Van Wechel LC, Li S, Weinberg A. Growth and drug resistance phenotypes resulting from cytomegalovirus DNA polymerase region III mutations observed in clinical specimens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007; 51: 41604162.
  • 118
    Smith IL, Cherrington JM, Jiles RE, Fuller MD, Freeman WR, Spector SA. High-level resistance of cytomegalovirus to ganciclovir is associated with alterations in both the UL97 and DNA polymerase genes. J Infect Dis 1997; 176: 6977.
  • 119
    Mylonakis E, Kallas WM, Fishman JA. Combination antiviral therapy for ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus infection in solid-organ transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34: 13371341.
  • 120
    Biron KK, Harvey RJ, Chamberlain SC, et al. Potent and selective inhibition of human cytomegalovirus replication by 1263W94, a benzimidazole L-riboside with a unique mode of action. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002; 46: 23652372.
  • 121
    Pescovitz MD. Maribavir: A new oral anti-cytomegalovirus drug. Future Virol 2008; 3: 435443.
  • 122
    Winston DJ, Young JA, Pullarkat V, et al. Maribavir prophylaxis for prevention of cytomegalovirus infection in allogeneic stem-cell transplant recipients: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study. Blood 2008; 111: 54035410.
  • 123
    Marty FM, Ljungman P, Papanicolaou GA, et al. Maribavir prophylaxis for prevention of cytomegalovirus disease in recipients of allogeneic stem-cell transplants: A phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial. Lancet Infect Dis 2011; 11: 284292.
  • 124
    Avery RK, Marty FM, Strasfeld L, et al. Oral maribavir for treatment of refractory or resistant cytomegalovirus infections in transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis 2010; 12: 489496.
  • 125
    Goldner T, Hewlett G, Ettischer N, Ruebsamen-Schaeff H, Zimmermann H, Lischka P. The novel anticytomegalovirus compound AIC246 (Letermovir) inhibits human cytomegalovirus replication through a specific antiviral mechanism that involves the viral terminase. J Virol 2011; 85: 1088410893.
  • 126
    Kaul DR, Stoelben S, Cober E, et al. First report of successful treatment of multidrug-resistant cytomegalovirus disease with the novel anti-CMV compound AIC246. Am J Transplant 2011; 11: 10791084.
  • 127
    Shapira MY, Resnick IB, Chou S, et al. Artesunate as a potent antiviral agent in a patient with late drug-resistant cytomegalovirus infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46: 14551457.
  • 128
    Avery RK. Update in management of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus infection. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2008; 21: 433437.
  • 129
    Avery RK. Update in management of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus infection. Curr Opin Infect Dis 2008; 21: 433437.
  • 130
    Levi ME, Mandava N, Chan LK, Weinberg A, Olson JL. Treatment of multidrug-resistant cytomegalovirus retinitis with systemically administered leflunomide. Transpl Infect Dis 2006; 8: 3843.
  • 131
    Mossad SB, Avery RK. Second look at leflunomide “failure” to control cytomegalovirus infection in the setting of renal failure. Transpl Infect Dis 2007; 9: 260.
  • 132
    Avery RK, Mossad SB, Poggio E, et al. Utility of leflunomide in the treatment of complex cytomegalovirus syndromes. Transplantation 2010; 90: 419426.
  • 133
    Battiwalla M, Paplham P, Almyroudis NG, et al. Leflunomide failure to control recurrent cytomegalovirus infection in the setting of renal failure after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis 2007; 9: 2832.
  • 134
    Linares L, Sanclemente G, Cervera C, et al. Influence of cytomegalovirus disease in outcome of solid organ transplant patients. Transplant Proc 2011; 43: 21452148.
  • 135
    Munoz-Price LS, Slifkin M, Ruthazer R, et al. The clinical impact of ganciclovir prophylaxis on the occurrence of bacteremia in orthotopic liver transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 2004; 39: 12931299.
  • 136
    Walker RC, Marshall WF, Strickler JG, et al. Pretransplantation assessment of the risk of lymphoproliferative disorder. Clin Infect Dis 1995; 20: 13461353.
  • 137
    Gomez E, Laures A, Baltar JM, Melon S, Diez B, de Ona M. Cytomegalovirus replication and “herpesvirus burden” as risk factor of cardiovascular events in the first year after renal transplantation. Transplant Proc 2005; 37: 37603763.
  • 138
    Van Laecke S, Desideri F, Geerts A, et al. Hypomagnesemia and the risk of new-onset diabetes after liver transplantation. Liver Transplant 2010; 16: 12781287.
  • 139
    Leung Ki EL, Venetz JP, Meylan P, Lamoth F, Ruiz J, Pascual M. Cytomegalovirus infection and new-onset post-transplant diabetes mellitus. Clin Transplant 2008; 22: 245249.
  • 140
    Koch S, Larbi A, Ozcelik D, et al. Cytomegalovirus infection: A driving force in human T cell immunosenescence. Ann NY Acad Sci 2007; 1114: 2335.
  • 141
    Johanssson I, Martensson G, Andersson R. Cytomegalovirus and long-term outcome after lung transplantation in Gothenburg, Sweden. Scand J Infect Dis 2010; 42: 129136.
  • 142
    Sagedal S, Rollag H, Hartmann A. Cytomegalovirus infection in renal transplant recipients is associated with impaired survival irrespective of expected mortality risk. Clin Transplant 2007; 21: 309313.
  • 143
    Chmiel C, Speich R, Hofer M, et al. Ganciclovir/valganciclovir prophylaxis decreases cytomegalovirus-related events and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46: 831839.
  • 144
    Seehofer D, Rayes N, Tullius SG, et al. CMV hepatitis after liver transplantation: Incidence, clinical course, and long-term follow-up. Liver Transplant 2002; 8: 11381146.
  • 145
    Dzabic M, Rahbar A, Yaiw KC, et al. Intragraft cytomegalovirus protein expression is associated with reduced renal allograft survival. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53: 969976.
  • 146
    Reischig T, Jindra P, Hes O, Bouda M, Kormunda S, Treska V. Effect of cytomegalovirus viremia on subclinical rejection or interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy in protocol biopsy at 3 months in renal allograft recipients managed by preemptive therapy or antiviral prophylaxis. Transplantation 2009; 87: 436444.
  • 147
    Bosch W, Heckman MG, Pungpapong S, Diehl NN, Shalev JA, Hellinger WC. Association of cytomegalovirus infection and disease with recurrent hepatitis C after liver transplantation. Transplantation 2012; 93: 723728.
  • 148
    Gunsar F, Rolando N, Pastacaldi S, et al. Late hepatic artery thrombosis after orthotopic liver transplantation. Liver Transplant 2003; 9: 605611.
  • 149
    Silva MA, Jambulingam PS, Gunson BK, et al. Hepatic artery thrombosis following orthotopic liver transplantation: A 10-year experience from a single centre in the United Kingdom. Liver Transplant 2006; 12: 146151.
  • 150
    Potena L, Grigioni F, Magnani G, et al. Prophylaxis versus preemptive anti-cytomegalovirus approach for prevention of allograft vasculopathy in heart transplant recipients. J Heart Lung Transplant 2009; 28: 461467.
  • 151
    Petrakopoulou P, Kubrich M, Pehlivanli S, et al. Cytomegalovirus infection in heart transplant recipients is associated with impaired endothelial function. Circulation 2004; 110(Suppl 1): II207II212.
  • 152
    Kotton CN. Management of cytomegalovirus infection in solid organ transplantation. Nat Rev Nephrol 2010; 6: 711721.
  • 153
    Product Monograph Cytovene® Hoffmann-La Roche Limited/CYTOVENE®-IV (ganciclovir sodium for injection) 2010. Available at: http://www.gene.com/gene/products/information/cytovene/pdf/pi.pdf. Accessed June 18, 2011