We reviewed medical records of all patients (n = 4) who underwent facial composite tissue allotransplantation (FCTA) at our center between April 2009 and May 2011; data were censored in June 2012. We searched for FCTA publications and reviewed them for infectious complications and prophylaxis strategies.
Three patients received full and one partial FCTA at our institution. Two recipients were cytomegalovirus (CMV) Donor (D)+/Recipient (R)− and two CMV D+/R+. Perioperative prophylaxis included vancomycin, cefazolin and micafungin and was adjusted based on peritransplant cultures. Additional prophylaxis included trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and valganciclovir. Two recipients developed surgical site infection and two developed pneumonia early after transplantation. Both CMV D+/R− recipients developed CMV disease after discontinuation of prophylaxis, recovered with valganciclovir treatment and did not experience subsequent rejection. Other posttransplant infections included bacterial parotitis, polymicrobial bacteremia, invasive dermatophyte infection and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.
Nine publications described infectious complications in another 9 FCTA recipients. Early posttransplant infections were similar to those observed in our cohort and included pulmonary, surgical-site and catheter-associated infections. CMV was the most frequently described opportunist.
In conclusion, infections following FCTA were related to anatomical, technical and donor/recipient factors. CMV disease occurred in D+/R− recipients after prophylaxis, but was not associated with rejection.