• 1
    Ehrnthaller C, Ignatius A, Gebhard F, Huber-Lang M. New insights of an old defense system: Structure, function, and clinical relevance of the complement system. Mol Med 2011; 17: 317329.
  • 2
    Berger SP, Daha MR. Emerging role of the mannose-binding lectin-dependent pathway of complement activation in clinical organ transplantation. Curr Opin Organ Transplant 2011; 16: 2833.
  • 3
    Worthley DL, Johnson DF, Eisen DP, et al. Donor mannose-binding lectin deficiency increases the likelihood of clinically significant infection after liver transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48: 410417.
  • 4
    Cervera C, Balderramo D, Suárez B, et al. Donor mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphisms influence the outcome of liver transplantation. Liver Transpl 2009; 15: 12171224.
  • 5
    de Rooij BJ, van Hoek B, ten Hove WR, et al. Lectin complement pathway gene profile of donor and recipient determine the risk of bacterial infections after orthotropic liver transplantation. Hepatology 2010; 52: 11001110.
  • 6
    Manuel O, Pascual M, Trendelenburg M, Meylan PR. Association between mannose-binding lectin deficiency and cytomegalovirus infection after kidney transplantation. Transplantation 2007; 83: 359362.
  • 7
    Broeders EN, Wissing KM, Hazzan M, et al. Evolution of immunoglobulin and mannose binding protein levels after renal transplantation: Association with infectious complications. Transpl Int 2008; 21: 5764.
  • 8
    Verschuren JJ, Roos A, Schaapherder AF, et al. Infectious complications after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation: A role for the lectin pathway of complement activation. Transplantation 2008; 85: 7580.
  • 9
    Qin X, Gao B. The complement system in liver diseases. Cell Mol Immunol 2006; 3: 333340.
  • 10
    Carbone J, Micheloud D, Salcedo M, et al. Humoral and cellular immune monitoring might be useful to identify liver transplant recipients at risk for development of infection. Transpl Infect Dis 2008; 10: 396402.
  • 11
    Sarmiento E, del Pozo N, Gallego A, et al. Decreased levels of serum complement C3 and natural killer cells add to the predictive value of total immunoglobulin G for severe infection in heart transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis 2012; 14: 526539.
  • 12
    Fernández-Ruiz M, López-Medrano F, Varela-Peña P, et al. Monitoring of immunoglobulin levels identifies kidney transplant recipients at high risk of infection. Am J Transplant 2012; 12: 27632773.
  • 13
    Levey AS, Bosch JP, Lewis JB, Greene T, Rogers N, Roth D. A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: A new prediction equation. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. Ann Intern Med 1999; 130: 461470.
  • 14
    Garner JS, Jarvis WR, Emori TG, Horan TC, Hughes JM. CDC definitions for nosocomial infections, 1988. Am J Infect Control 1988; 16: 128140.
  • 15
    Rubin RH. Infection in the organ transplant recipient. In: Rubin RH, Young LS, Russell P, eds. Clinical approach to infection in the compromised host (3rd edn). New York: Plenum Publishing Corporation, 1981; pp. 629705.
  • 16
    Ljungman P, Griffiths P, Paya C. Definitions of Cytomegalovirus infection and disease in transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34: 10941097.
  • 17
    De Pauw B, Walsh TJ, Donnelly JP, et al. Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group. Clin Infect Dis 2008; 46: 18131821.
  • 18
    European Expert Group on Renal Transplantation (EBPG); European Renal Association (ERA-EDTA); European Society for Organ Transplantation (ESOT). European Best Practice Guidelines for Renal Transplantation (part 1). Nephrol Dial Transplant 2000; 15(Suppl 7): 185.
  • 19
    Hedeker D, Gibbons RD. Mixed-effect regression models for binary outcomes. Longitudinal data analysis. New Jersey: Wiley, 2006: 149186.
  • 20
    Fishman JA, Issa NC. Infection in organ transplantation: Risk factors and evolving patterns of infection. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2010; 24: 273283.
  • 21
    Engström G, Hedblad B, Eriksson KF, Janzon L, Lindgärde F. Complement C3 is a risk factor for the development of diabetes: A population-based cohort study. Diabetes 2005; 54: 570575.
  • 22
    Onat A, Can G, Rezvani R, Cianflone K. Complement C3 and cleavage products in cardiometabolic risk. Clin Chim Acta 2011; 412: 11711179.
  • 23
    Barnes RM, Hart CA, Alexander LC, Steen S. Immunological evaluation of renal transplant patients: Changes in levels of beta-2-microglobulin, immunoglobulins and complement components during graft rejection. J Clin Lab Immunol 1983; 12: 1722.
  • 24
    Kumar P, Kodlin D, Marks C, Leech SH. Predictive value of serum complement (C3) in renal allograft rejection. Br J Surg 1980; 67: 500502.
  • 25
    Sonkar GK, Usha, Singh RG. Study on the role of humoral immunity in renal transplant rejections and its correlation with histopathological findings. Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2011; 22: 901910.
  • 26
    Racusen LC, Halloran PF, Solez K. Banff 2003 meeting report: New diagnostic insights and standards. Am J Transplant 2004; 4: 15621566.
  • 27
    Asgari E, Zhou W, Sacks S. Complement in organ transplantation. Curr Opin Organ Transplant 2010; 15: 486491.
  • 28
    Kerr AR, Paterson GK, Riboldi-Tunnicliffe A, Mitchell TJ. Innate immune defense against pneumococcal pneumonia requires pulmonary complement component C3. Infect Immun 2005; 73: 42454252.
  • 29
    Mueller-Ortiz SL, Drouin SM, Wetsel RA. The alternative activation pathway and complement component C3 are critical for a protective immune response against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a murine model of pneumonia. Infect Immun 2004; 72: 28992906.
  • 30
    Ekdahl K, Truedsson L, Sjöholm AG, Braconier JH. Complement analysis in adult patients with a history of bacteremic pneumococcal infections or recurrent pneumonia. Scand J Infect Dis 1995; 27: 111117.
  • 31
    Da Costa XJ, Brockman MA, Alicot E, et al. Humoral response to herpes simplex virus is complement-dependent. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999; 96: 1270812712.
  • 32
    Kopf M, Abel B, Gallimore A, Carroll M, Bachmann MF. Complement component C3 promotes T-cell priming and lung migration to control acute influenza virus infection. Nat Med 2002; 8: 373378.
  • 33
    Tsoni SV, Kerrigan AM, Marakalala MJ, et al. Complement C3 plays an essential role in the control of opportunistic fungal infections. Infect Immun 2009; 77: 36793685.
  • 34
    Wahrmann M, Döhler B, Ruhenstroth A, et al. Genotypic diversity of complement component C4 does not predict kidney transplant outcome. J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 22: 367376.
  • 35
    Berger SP, Roos A, Mallat MJ, Fujita T, de Fijter JW, Daha MR. Association between mannose-binding lectin levels and graft survival in kidney transplantation. Am J Transplant 2005; 5: 13611366.
  • 36
    Berger SP, Roos A, Mallat MJ, et al. Low pretransplantation mannose-binding lectin levels predict superior patient and graft survival after simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol 2007; 18: 24162422.
  • 37
    Kalantar-Zadeh K, Rodriguez RA, Humphreys MH. Association between serum ferritin and measures of inflammation, nutrition and iron in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2004; 19: 141149.