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Figure S1: TCM screening assay. IFNγ and IL-10 screening assays as performed in Figure 1, of remaining 43 TCM compounds, each tested at 20 and 100 μg/mL.

Figure S2: Qu Mai inhibits IFNγ and augments IL-10 production by allostimulated PBMCs by ELISPOT. Results of IFNγ (A) and IL-10 (B) ELISPOT assays used to calculate ratios depicted in Figure 2. *p < 0.05 versus control (0 μg/mL).

Figure S3: QMAD inhibits IFNγ and augments IL-10 production by allostimulated PBMCs by ELISA. Results of IFNγ (A) and IL-10 (B) ELISA assays used to calculate ratios depicted in Figure 4B. *p < 0.05 versus 0, 12.5 and 25 μg/mL.

Figure S4: QMAD enhances Treg induction with TGFβ. (A) Representative Foxp3 histograms of enriched CD4 + CD45RA cells stimulated with anti-CD3/28 + IL-2 + TGFβ for 5 days ± QMAD and gated on CD4+CD25+ cells. %Foxp3 expressed as mean of six individual experiments. Foxp3 MFI values are shown in red. *p < 0.05 versus 0, #p < 0.05 versus 0 and 30 μg/mL. (B) Absolute CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ cells in 5-day naive CD4 T cell cultures treated with anti-CD3/28 + IL-2 + TGFβ± QMAD. *p < 0.05 versus IL-2. **p < 0.001 versus IL-2 and IL-2 + TGFβ. (C) Suppression assay using CFSE-labeled PBMCs, gated on CD* (Teff) cultured with QMAD-treated CD4 cells versus vehicle control (Treg). *p < 0.05 1:4–1:16 versus Teff, 1:4–1:8 in DMSO controls versus Teff, n = 3.

Table S1: TCM herbal preparations used in screening assay

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