• Islet transplantation;
  • kidney transplantation;
  • pediatric;
  • renal disease;
  • type I diabetes


Islet transplantation after successful kidney transplantation is a recognized treatment for adults with diabetes and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but has not been considered an option in the pediatric population. To our knowledge, we report the first combined islet and kidney transplant in a child. The patient was born with bilateral renal hypoplasia and was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus at age 13 months. He had erratic glycemic control and hypoglycemia unawareness. At 6 years of age, the child safely underwent simultaneous islet and live donor kidney transplantation. Although function of the islet graft was transient, the combined transplant provided significant benefits in terms of glucose control and overall growth and development. Such an approach represents a viable treatment option for pediatric patients with ESRD and unstable diabetes.