• Dual;
  • KDRI;
  • kidney transplantation


UNOS guidelines provide inadequate discriminatory criteria for kidneys that should be transplanted as single (SKT) versus dual (DKT). We evaluated the utility of the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) to define kidneys with better outcomes when transplanted as dual. Using SRTR data from 1995 to 2010 of de novo KTX recipients of adult deceased-donor kidneys, we examined outcomes of SKT and DKT stratified by KDRI group ≤1.4 (n = 49 294), 1.41–1.8 (n = 15 674), 1.81–2.2 (n = 6523) and >2.2 (n = 2791). DKT of kidneys with KDRI >2.2 was associated with significantly better overall graft survival [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72–0.96] compared to single kidneys with KDRI >2.2. DKT was associated with significantly decreased odds of delayed graft function (top 2 KDRI categories) and significantly decreased odds of 1-year serum creatinine level >2 mg/dL (top 3 KDRI categories). Among SKT and DKT from KDRI >2.2 there were 16.1 and 13.9 graft losses per 100 patient follow-up years, respectively. KDRI >2.2 is a useful discriminatory cut-off for the determination of graft survival benefit with the use of DKT; however, the benefit of increased graft years was less than half of single kidneys from donors in the same KDRI range.