• 1
    Ricklin D, Hajishengallis G, Yang K, Lambris JD. Complement: A key system for immune surveillance and homeostasis. Nat Immunol 2010; 11: 785797.
  • 2
    Pratt JR, Basheer SA, Sacks SH. Local synthesis of complement component C3 regulates acute renal transplant rejection. Nat Med 2002; 8: 582587.
  • 3
    Heeger PS, Kemper C. Novel roles of complement in T effector cell regulation. Immunobiology 2012; 217: 216224.
  • 4
    Qian Z, Wasowska BA, Behrens E, et al. C6 produced by macrophages contributes to cardiac allograft rejection. Am J Pathol 1999; 155: 12931302.
  • 5
    Dempsey PW, Allison ME, Akkaraju S, Goodnow CC, Fearon DT. C3d of complement as a molecular adjuvant: Bridging innate and acquired immunity. Science 1996; 271: 348350.
  • 6
    Bower JF, Yang X, Sodroski J, Ross TM. Elicitation of neutralizing antibodies with DNA vaccines expressing soluble stabilized human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein trimers conjugated to C3d. J Virol 2004; 78: 47104719.
  • 7
    Gor DO, Ding X, Li Q, Greenspan NS. Genetic fusion of three tandem copies of murine C3d sequences to diphtheria toxin fragment B elicits a decreased fragment B-specific antibody response. Immunol Lett 2006; 102: 3849.
  • 8
    Liu J, Miwa T, Hilliard B, et al. The complement inhibitory protein DAF (CD55) suppresses T cell immunity in vivo. J Exp Med 2005; 201: 567577.
  • 9
    Lalli PN, Strainic MG, Yang M, Lin F, Medof ME, Heeger PS. Locally produced C5a binds to T cell-expressed C5aR to enhance effector T-cell expansion by limiting antigen-induced apoptosis. Blood 2008; 112: 17591766.
  • 10
    Pavlov V, Raedler H, Yuan S, et al. Donor deficiency of decay-accelerating factor accelerates murine T cell-mediated cardiac allograft rejection. J Immunol 2008; 181: 45804589.
  • 11
    Liu J, Lin F, Strainic MG, et al. IFN-gamma and IL-17 production in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis depends on local APC-T cell complement production. J Immunol 2008; 180: 58825889.
  • 12
    Fang C, Miwa T, Shen H, Song WC. Complement-dependent enhancement of CD8+ T cell immunity to lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection in decay-accelerating factor-deficient mice. J Immunol 2007; 179: 31783186.
  • 13
    Seok J, Warren HS, Cuenca AG, et al. Genomic responses in mouse models poorly mimic human inflammatory diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2013; 110: 35073512.
  • 14
    Peng Q, Li K, Anderson K, et al. Local production and activation of complement up-regulates the allostimulatory function of dendritic cells through C3a-C3aR interaction. Blood 2008; 111: 24522461.
  • 15
    Peng Q, Li K, Wang N, et al. Dendritic cell function in allostimulation is modulated by C5aR signaling. J Immunol 2009; 183: 60586068.
  • 16
    Raedler H, Yang M, Lalli PN, Medof ME, Heeger PS. Primed CD8(+) T-cell responses to allogeneic endothelial cells are controlled by local complement activation. Am J Transplant 2009; 9: 17841795.
  • 17
    Strainic MG, Liu J, Huang D, et al. Locally produced complement fragments C5a and C3a provide both costimulatory and survival signals to naive CD4+ T cells. Immunity 2008; 28: 425435.
  • 18
    Kim AH, Dimitriou ID, Holland MC, et al. Complement C5a receptor is essential for the optimal generation of antiviral CD8+ T cell responses. J Immunol 2004; 173: 25242529.
  • 19
    Lin M, Yin N, Murphy B, et al. Immune cell-derived c3 is required for autoimmune diabetes induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin. Diabetes 2010; 59: 22472252.
  • 20
    Kwan WH, Hashimoto D, Paz-Artal E, et al. Antigen-presenting cell-derived complement modulates graft-versus-host disease. J Clin Invest 2012; 122: 22342238.
  • 21
    Li K, Fazekasova H, Wang N, et al. Functional modulation of human monocytes derived DCs by anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Immunobiology 2012; 217: 6573.
  • 22
    Li K, Fazekasova H, Wang N, et al. Expression of complement components, receptors and regulators by human dendritic cells. Mol Immunol 2011; 48: 11211127.
  • 23
    Martin U, Bock D, Arseniev L, et al. The human C3a receptor is expressed on neutrophils and monocytes, but not on B or T lymphocytes. J Exp Med 1997; 186: 199207.
  • 24
    Werfel T, Kirchhoff K, Wittmann M, et al. Activated human T lymphocytes express a functional C3a receptor. J Immunol 2000; 165: 65996605.
  • 25
    Nataf S, Davoust N, Ames RS, Barnum SR. Human T cells express the C5a receptor and are chemoattracted to C5a. J Immunol 1999; 162: 40184023.
  • 26
    Ito R, Katano I, Kawai K, et al. Highly sensitive model for xenogenic GVHD using severe immunodeficient NOG mice. Transplantation 2009; 87: 16541658.
  • 27
    Hippen KL, Bucher C, Schirm DK, et al. Blocking IL-21 signaling ameliorates xenogeneic GVHD induced by human lymphocytes. Blood 2012; 119: 619628.
  • 28
    Heeger PS, Greenspan NS, Kuhlenschmidt S, et al. Pretransplant frequency of donor-specific, IFN-gamma-producing lymphocytes is a manifestation of immunologic memory and correlates with the risk of posttransplant rejection episodes. J Immunol 1999; 163: 22672275.
  • 29
    Cooke KR, Kobzik L, Martin TR, et al. An experimental model of idiopathic pneumonia syndrome after bone marrow transplantation: I. The roles of minor H antigens and endotoxin. Blood 1996; 88: 32303239.
  • 30
    Kane LP, Weiss A. The PI-3 kinase/Akt pathway and T cell activation: Pleiotropic pathways downstream of PIP3. Immunol Rev 2003; 192: 720.
  • 31
    Lynch DM, Kay PH. Studies on the polymorphism of the fifth component of complement in laboratory mice. Exp Clin Immunogenet 1995; 12: 253260.
  • 32
    Baxter AG, Cooke A. Complement lytic activity has no role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Diabetes 1993; 42: 15741578.
  • 33
    van der Touw W, Cravedi P, Kwan WH, Paz-Artal E, Merad M, Heeger PS. Cutting edge: Receptors for C3a and C5a modulate stability of alloantigen-reactive induced regulatory T cells. J Immunol 2013; 190: 59215925.
  • 34
    Strainic MG, Shevach EM, An F, Lin F, Medof ME. Absence of signaling into CD4(+) cells via C3aR and C5aR enables autoinductive TGF-beta1 signaling and induction of Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. Nat Immunol 2013; 14: 162171.
  • 35
    Hillmen P, Young NS, Schubert J, et al. The complement inhibitor eculizumab in paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 12331243.