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American Journal of Transplantation

Cover image for Vol. 9 Issue 8

August 2009

Volume 9, Issue 8

Pages 1699–1968

  1. The AJT Report

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Editorials
    4. Minireviews
    5. Personal Viewpoint
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      The AJT Report: News and issues that affect organ and tissue transplantation (pages 1699–1700)

      SUE PONDROM

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02776.x

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      This month, “The AJT Report” examines challenges the proposed national paired kidney donation program may face. We also look at controversial data from a study on double-lung transplants.

  2. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Editorials
    4. Minireviews
    5. Personal Viewpoint
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      4D11: The Second Mouse? (pages 1701–1702)

      A. D. Kirk

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02749.x

      The non-human primate experience with the human CD40-specific human monoclonal antibody 4D11 reported in this issue holds promise that this agent will be suitable for human clinical trials, provided that we remember the lessons learned from previous agents acting on this mechanism. See Article by Aoyagi et al on page 1732–1741.

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      Is Downstaging Prior to Liver Transplantation Important in Hepatocellular Carcinoma? (pages 1703–1704)

      P. Lee, S. Kee and R. Busuttil

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02746.x

      Downstaging hepatocellular carcinoma for liver transplantation is a procedure in evolution, but the results presented in this article for Yttrium-90 radioembolization are encouraging. See Article by Lewandowski et al on page 1920–1928.

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      An Unwelcome Guest: Aspergillus Colonization in Lung Transplantation and Its Association with Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (pages 1705–1706)

      S. Garantziotis and S. M. Palmer

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02709.x

      Aspergillus colonization may increase the risk for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplantation. See article by Weigt et al. on page 1903–1911.

  3. Minireviews

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Editorials
    4. Minireviews
    5. Personal Viewpoint
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      A Practical Guide to the Management of HCV Infection Following Liver Transplantation (pages 1707–1713)

      K. Watt, B. Veldt and M. Charlton

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02702.x

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      Practical recommendations for the management of patients undergoing liver transplantation with HCV infection include avoiding older donors, controlling CMV, and reducing immunosuppression, as well as the use of interferon and ribavirin.

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      Immunobiology of Chronic Lung Allograft Dysfunction: New Insights from the Bench and Beyond (pages 1714–1718)

      R. A. Shilling and D. S. Wilkes

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02690.x

      Key issues in lung transplant immunology as they relate to the development of chronic allograft dysfunction including obliterative bronchiolitis involve early graft dysfunction, autoimmunity, and regulatory T cells.

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      Human FOXP3+ Regulatory T Cells in Transplantation (pages 1719–1724)

      P. Boros and J. S. Bromberg

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02704.x

      This minireview summarizes knowledge of generation, phenotypic characteristics and function of human CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells, and their possible role in organ transplantation, emphasizing the fundamental gaps that still exist in our knowledge.

  4. Personal Viewpoint

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Editorials
    4. Minireviews
    5. Personal Viewpoint
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      Azathioprine in Liver Transplantation: A Reevaluation of Its Use and a Comparison with Mycophenolate Mofetil (pages 1725–1731)

      G. Germani, M. Pleguezuelo, F. Villamil, S. Vaghjiani, E. Tsochatzis, L. Andreana and A. K. Burroughs

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02705.x

      This review examines the clinical benefit of MMF compared to AZA in liver transplantation, not only for rejection, but also in relation to renal dysfunction and HCV recurrence, suggesting that the perceived clinical benefits of MMF over AZA are not supported by good evidence.

  5. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Editorials
    4. Minireviews
    5. Personal Viewpoint
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Letters to the Editor
    1. Laboratory Science

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      A Human Anti-CD40 Monoclonal Antibody, 4D11, for Kidney Transplantation in Cynomolgus Monkeys: Induction and Maintenance Therapy (pages 1732–1741)

      T. Aoyagi, K. Yamashita, T. Suzuki, M. Uno, R. Goto, M. Taniguchi, T. Shimamura, N. Takahashi, T. Miura, K. Okimura, T. Itoh, A. Shimizu, H. Furukawa and S. Todo

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02693.x

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      CD40 costimulatory blockade by 4D11 prolongs renal allograft survival in cynomolgus monkeys. See Editorial by Kirk on page 1701–1720.

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      High Weight Differences between Donor and Recipient Affect Early Kidney Graft Function—A Role for Enhanced IL-6 Signaling (pages 1742–1751)

      W. Gong, M. Klöpfel, A. Reutzel-Selke, A. Jurisch, K. Vogt, S. Haase, C. Höflich, D. Polenz, B. Gerstmayer, S. Tomiuk, H.-D. Volk, A. Pascher and B. Sawitzki

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02725.x

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      Body weight differences between donor and recipient contribute to delayed graft function after kidney transplantation, which may be reduced by targeting interleukin 6 signaling.

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      Kidney Injury Molecule-1 is an Early Noninvasive Indicator for Donor Brain Death-Induced Injury Prior to Kidney Transplantation (pages 1752–1759)

      W. N. Nijboer, T. A. Schuurs, J. Damman, H. Van Goor, V. S. Vaidya, J. J. Homan Van Der Heide, H. G. D. Leuvenink, J. V. Bonventre and R. J. Ploeg

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02713.x

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      Donor KIM-1 increases over time during brain death in an animal model and is a predictor of kidney function after human kidney transplantation.

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      Infusion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Rapamycin Synergize to Attenuate Alloimmune Responses and Promote Cardiac Allograft Tolerance (pages 1760–1772)

      W. Ge, J. Jiang, M. L. Baroja, J. Arp, R. Zassoko, W. Liu, A. Bartholomew, B. Garcia and H. Wang

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02721.x

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      Engraftment of infused mesenchymal stem cells combined with rapamycin synergistically induced prolonged heart transplant survival in mice, with high frequencies of tolerogenic dendritic cells and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells.

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      Critical Role for IL-6 in Hypertrophy and Fibrosis in Chronic Cardiac Allograft Rejection (pages 1773–1783)

      J. A. Diaz, A. J. Booth, G. Lu, S. C. Wood, D. J. Pinsky and D. K. Bishop

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02706.x

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      This study identifies IL-6 as a potential therapeutic target for preventing the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, graft fibrosis, and the deterioration of graft function associated with chronic cardiac allograft rejection.

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      Primed CD8+ T-Cell Responses to Allogeneic Endothelial Cells Are Controlled by Local Complement Activation (pages 1784–1795)

      H. Raedler, M. Yang, P. N. Lalli, M. E. Medof and P. S. Heeger

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02723.x

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      This set of murine model studies demonstrates that proliferation and effector functions of activated CD8 T cells responding to allogeneic endothelial cells, both in vitro and in vivo, require endothelial cell production of complement proteins

    7. Clinical Science

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      Fate of the Mate: The Influence of Delayed Graft Function in Renal Transplantation on the Mate Recipient (pages 1796–1801)

      J. F. Johnson, A. M. Jevnikar, J. L. Mahon, N. Muirhead and A. A. House

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02692.x

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      In analyzing the influence of delayed graft function in renal transplantation, the authors find that mates to delayed graft function recipients have a significantly larger decline in allograft function one year post-transplant compared to similar controls.

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      Diagnosing Rejection in Renal Transplants: A Comparison of Molecular- and Histopathology-Based Approaches (pages 1802–1810)

      J. Reeve, G. Einecke, M. Mengel, B. Sis, N. Kayser, B. Kaplan and P. F. Halloran

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02694.x

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      Predicting rejection using microarray data from kidney transplant biopsies shows high concordance with histopathology diagnoses, but comparison of the two methods offers insights that may further improve diagnostic accuracy.

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      Use of Cardioprotective Medications in Kidney Transplant Recipients (pages 1811–1815)

      R. S. Gaston, B. L. Kasiske, A. M. Fieberg, R. Leduc, F. C. Cosio, S. Gourishankar, P. Halloran, L. Hunsicker, D. Rush and A. J. Matas

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02696.x

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      Given the impact of cardiac disease in kidney transplantation, and the emphasis on cardioprotection in the literature, this study examines implementation of treatment regimens at seven transplant centers in the US and Canada.

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      Incidence, Risk Factors and Clinical Consequences of Neutropenia Following Kidney Transplantation: A Retrospective Study (pages 1816–1825)

      L. Zafrani, L. Truffaut, H. Kreis, D. Etienne, C. Rafat, S. Lechaton, D. Anglicheau, J. Zuber, M. Ciroldi, E. Thervet, R. Snanoudj, M. F. Mamzer, F. Martinez, M.O. Timsit, L. Bergougnoux and C. Legendre

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02699.x

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      Combined tacrolimus-mycophenolate therapy is associated with the occurrence of neutropenia, which may exert a deleterious effect on the kidney transplant outcome.

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      Subclinical Rejection in Stable Positive Crossmatch Kidney Transplant Patients: Incidence and Correlations (pages 1826–1834)

      E. S. Kraus, R. S. Parekh, P. Oberai, D. Lepley, D. L. Segev, S. Bagnasco, V. Collins, M. Leffell, D. Lucas, H. Rabb, L. C. Racusen, A. L. Singer, Z. A. Stewart, D. S. Warren, A .A. Zachary, M. Haas and R. A. Montgomery

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02701.x

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      This retrospective case series of surveillance biopsies of 95 live donor clinically stable positive crossmatch kidney transplant recipients obtained during the first postoperative year demonstrates a > 20% frequency of subclinical cellular rejection and a 20–30% frequency of diffuse C4d+ at all time points.

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      BAFF Is Increased in Renal Transplant Patients Following Treatment with Alemtuzumab (pages 1835–1845)

      D. Bloom, Z. Chang, K. Pauly, J. Kwun, J. Fechner, C. Hayes, M. Samaniego and S. Knechtle

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02710.x

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      B Cell Activating Factor (BAFF) is significantly increased long-term in the serum of renal transplant patients treated with alemtuzumab, produced in part by CD14+ monocytes, and enhances alloreactive B cell activation in vitro.

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      Extent and Severity of Coronary Disease and Mortality in Patients with End-Stage Renal Failure Evaluated for Renal Transplantation (pages 1846–1852)

      D. G. Jones, A. M. Taylor, S. A. Enkiri, P. Lobo, K. L. Brayman, E. C. Keeley, L. C. Lipson, L. W. Gimple and M. Ragosta

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02703.x

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      CAD in patients awaiting transplantation is related to subsequent mortality but should not preclude transplantation.

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      Kidney Transplantation from Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Positive Donors into Hepatitis B Surface Antibody Positive Recipients: A Prospective Nonrandomized Controlled Study from a Single Center (pages 1853–1858)

      H. Jiang, J. Wu, X. Zhang, D. Wu, H. Huang, Q. He, R. Wang, Y. Wang, J. Zhang and J. Chen

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02707.x

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      Anti-HBs(+) kidney transplant recipients receiving kidneys from either HBsAg(+) donors or HBsAg(−) donors with a standardized immunosuppressive, anti-viral regimen had similar outcomes, indicating that kidney allografts from HBsAg(+) donors can be used safely in anti-HBs(+) recipients.

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      Scoring Total Inflammation Is Superior to the Current Banff Inflammation Score in Predicting Outcome and the Degree of Molecular Disturbance in Renal Allografts (pages 1859–1867)

      M. Mengel, J. Reeve, S. Bunnag, G. Einecke, G. S. Jhangri, B. Sis, K. Famulski, L. Guembes-Hidalgo and P. F. Halloran

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02727.x

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      The new “total-i”-score in kidney allograft biopsies for cause is the more robust predictor of death censored allograft survival and the best morphological correlate of the molecular phenotype.

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      Cancer Mortality in Kidney Transplantation (pages 1868–1875)

      B. A. Kiberd, C. Rose and J. S. Gill

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02728.x

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      In this US registry analysis, mortality from cancer was not found to be increased in older kidney transplant recipients compared to the general population despite the evidence of increased cancer incidence.

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      Calcineurin Inhibitor Minimization in the Symphony Study: Observational Results 3 Years after Transplantation (pages 1876–1885)

      H. Ekberg, C. Bernasconi, H. Tedesco-Silva, S. Vítko, C. Hugo, A. Demirbas, R. Reyes Acevedo, J. Grinyó, U. Frei, Y. Vanrenterghem, P. Daloze and P. Halloran

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02726.x

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      Three-year extended follow up of the Symphony study populations shows that renal function remains stable with few acute rejection or graft loss events, and similar treatment group differences as those at one year but with reduced statistical power.

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      Perception Versus Reality?: Virtual Crossmatch—How to Overcome Some of the Technical and Logistic Limitations (pages 1886–1893)

      A. R. Tambur, D. S. Ramon, D. B. Kaufman, J. Friedewald, X. Luo, B. Ho, A. Skaro, J. Caicedo, D. Ladner, T. Baker, J. Fryer, L. Gallon, J. Miller, M. M. Abecassis and J. Leventhal

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02724.x

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      Comparing results from flow-cytometric crossmatch (XM) performed in the OPO lab with virtual crossmatch assays based on antibody evaluation performed in our laboratory led to better understanding of potential technical and logistic limitations of the virtual XM assay and to recommendations regarding how to better address them.

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      Posttransplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder Following Pancreas Transplantation (pages 1894–1902)

      N. Issa, H. Amer, P. G. Dean, W. K. Kremers, Y. C. Kudva, N. Rostambeigi, F. G. Cosio, T. S. Larson, T. M. Habermann, M. D. Stegall and M. D. Griffin

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02691.x

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      In this cohort of pancreas transplant recipients the incidence of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder may be lower and carry a better prognosis than previously reported. However, recipients without antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus at the time of transplant have increased risk and warrant close surveillance.

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      Aspergillus Colonization of the Lung Allograft Is a Risk Factor for Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome (pages 1903–1911)

      S. S. Weigt, R. M. Elashoff, C. Huang, A. Ardehali, A. L. Gregson, B. Kubak, M. C. Fishbein, R. Saggar, M. P. Keane, R. Saggar, J. P. Lynch III, D. A. Zisman, D. J. Ross and J. A. Belperio

      Article first published online: 13 MAY 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02635.x

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      Aspergillus colonization of the lung allograft is associated with an increased risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. See Editorial by Garantziotis and Palmer on page 1705–1706.

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      Lack of Effect of MICA Antibodies on Graft Survival Following Heart Transplantation (pages 1912–1919)

      J. D. Smith, V. M. Brunner, S. Jigjidsuren, I. M. Hamour, A. M. McCormack, N. R. Banner and M. L. Rose

      Article first published online: 26 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02722.x

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      A retrospective study of pre- and post-transplant serum from 433 adult cardiac transplant recipients without HLA antibodies demonstrates no effect of MICA antibodies on graft survival, acute rejection or graft vasculopathy

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      A Comparative Analysis of Transarterial Downstaging for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Chemoembolization Versus Radioembolization (pages 1920–1928)

      R. J. Lewandowski, L. M. Kulik, A. Riaz, S. Senthilnathan, M. F. Mulcahy, R. K. Ryu, S. M. Ibrahim, K. T. Sato, T. Baker, F. H. Miller, R. Omary, M. Abecassis and R. Salem

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02695.x

      In this single institution study, radioembolization (TARE-Y90) demonstrated a higher rate of event free survival after downstaging when compared to the commonly used transarterial embolization (TACE). See Editorial by Lee et al on page 1703–1704.

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      Donor-Derived Disease Transmission Events in the United States: Data Reviewed by the OPTN/UNOS Disease Transmission Advisory Committee (pages 1929–1935)

      M. G. Ison, J. Hager, E. Blumberg, J. Burdick, K. Carney, J. Cutler, J. M. DiMaio, R. Hasz, M. J. Kuehnert, E. Ortiz-Rios, L. Teperman and M. Nalesnik

      Article first published online: 16 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02700.x

      This summary and analysis of donor-disease transmission reports made to the OPTN/UNOS Disease Transmission Advisory Committee from 2005–2007 finds 0.96% potential donor-derived transmission events in deceased donations.

  6. Brief Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Editorials
    4. Minireviews
    5. Personal Viewpoint
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Letters to the Editor
    1. Clinical Science

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      Calcineurin-Inhibitor-Free Immunosuppression Based on the JAK Inhibitor CP-690,550: A Pilot Study in De Novo Kidney Allograft Recipients (pages 1936–1945)

      S. Busque, J. Leventhal, D. C. Brennan, S. Steinberg, G. Klintmalm, T. Shah, S. Mulgaonkar, J. S. Bromberg, F. Vincenti, S. Hariharan, D. Slakey, V. R. Peddi, R. A. Fisher, N. Lawendy, C. Wang and G. Chan

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02720.x

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      In this pilot study, inhibition of the JAK3 pathway with CP-690,550 resulted in relatively low rates of rejection after kidney transplantation with evidence of over-immunosuppression when CP-690,550 30 mg BID was combined with MMF.

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      Safety and Efficacy of Raltegravir in HIV-Infected Transplant Patients Cotreated with Immunosuppressive Drugs (pages 1946–1952)

      L. Tricot, E. Teicher, G. Peytavin, D. Zucman, F. Conti, Y. Calmus, B. Barrou, C. Duvivier, C. Fontaine, Y. Welker, C. Billy, P. De Truchis, M. Delahousse, D. Vittecoq and D. Salmon-Céron

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02684.x

      Raltegravir use in solid organ transplantation represents a new option to reduce drug interactions in HIV-infected patients.

  7. Case Reports

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Editorials
    4. Minireviews
    5. Personal Viewpoint
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      Successful Urgent Transplantation of an Adult Kidney into a Child with Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis (pages 1953–1956)

      R. B. Stevens, G. R. Yannam, B. C. Hill, T. H. Rigley, D. M. Penn and J. Y. Skorupa

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02687.x

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      IVC thrombosis need not preclude successful transplantation of adult-sized kidneys into children.

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      Acute Humoral Rejection in an ABO Compatible Combined Liver–Kidney Transplant—The Kidney Is Not Always Protected (pages 1957–1960)

      T. W. Reichman, S. R. Marino, J. Milner, R. C. Harland, A. Cochrane, J. M. Millis and G. Testa

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02714.x

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      A patient who developed isolated acute antibody-mediated rejection of the kidney after a liver-kidney transplant required three months to recover after treatment with IVIG, rituximab, and plasmapheresis.

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      Evidence for Humoral Rejection of a Pancreatic Islet Graft and Rescue with Rituximab and IV Immunoglobulin Therapy (pages 1961–1966)

      L. Kessler, A. Parissiadis, F. Bayle, F. Moreau, M. Pinget, N. Froelich, J.-P. Cazenave, T. Berney, P. Y. Benhamou, D. Hanau and on behalf of the GRAGIL Study Group

      Article first published online: 12 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02711.x

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      Rituximab and IV immunoglobulin used for the treatment of humoral pancreatic islet rejection were associated with recovery of islet function.

  8. Letters to the Editor

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Editorials
    4. Minireviews
    5. Personal Viewpoint
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      Letter to the Editor (page 1967)

      Peter P. Reese, Ari Huverserian and Roy D. Bloom

      Article first published online: 16 JUL 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02719.x

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      Renal Function Estimation in Cirrhosis (page 1968)

      F. Turgut and A. Akcay

      Article first published online: 10 JUN 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.02689.x

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