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American Journal of Transplantation

Cover image for Vol. 13 Issue 11

November 2013

Volume 13, Issue 11

Pages 2781–3051

  1. The AJT Report

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Literature Watch
    4. Editorials
    5. Minireview
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Reports From the CDC: MMWR
    10. Book Review
    11. Images in Transplantation
    12. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      The AJT Report (pages 2781–2782)

      Sue Pondrom

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12527

      This month, we look at a variety of ways transplant centers are coping with the increased volume and complexity of organ offers. Also this month, we look at six OPTN/UNOS proposals open for public comment.

  2. Literature Watch

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Literature Watch
    4. Editorials
    5. Minireview
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Reports From the CDC: MMWR
    10. Book Review
    11. Images in Transplantation
    12. Letters to the Editor
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      Literature Watch Implications for transplantation (page 2783)

      Jerzy W. Kupiec-Weglinski and Jonathan S. Bromberg

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12528

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      Several studies offer a better understanding of skin immunology that should improve understanding of the complex immune mechanisms leading to VCA rejection or acceptance.

  3. Editorials

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Literature Watch
    4. Editorials
    5. Minireview
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Reports From the CDC: MMWR
    10. Book Review
    11. Images in Transplantation
    12. Letters to the Editor
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      Necroptosis in Solid Organ Transplantation: A Missing Link to Immune Activation? (pages 2785–2786)

      R. B. Mannon

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12450

      Programmed cell necrosis is a newly recognized entity with interplay in the innate immune response and ischemia-reperfusion injury, and it may play an important role in allograft rejection. See minireview by Linkermann et al on page 2797 and article by Lau et al on page 2805.

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      Intragraft Donor-Specific Antibody Detection: A New Test to Dichotomize HLA Alloantibodies Into High and Low Injurious Activity (pages 2787–2789)

      B. Sis

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12440

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      Intragraft antibody detection opens new avenues for research and clinical decision-making. See article by Bachelet et al on page 2855.

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      Cognitive Function, Self-Management and Graft Health in Pediatric Liver Transplantation (pages 2790–2791)

      J. Bucuvalas

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12409

      This editorial examines the potential relationship between allograft health and cognitive function in long-term survivors of pediatric liver transplantation. See article by Kaller et al on page 2956.

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      Emerging Entities of Immune-Mediated Allograft Dysfunction After Liver Transplantation? (pages 2792–2793)

      M. P. Manns and H. Mix

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12416

      The authors discuss plasma cell–rich hepatitis in liver transplant recipients and further implications regarding its etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment and relevance for organ dysfunction. See article by Castillo-Rama et al on page 2966.

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      The Lethal and Enduring Inequity of Deceased Donor Liver Allocation Policy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the United States (pages 2794–2796)

      M. Charlton

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12442

      This editorial reviews the implications and impact of the UNOS policy of prioritization of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma for liver transplantation. See brief communication by Schuetz et al on page 2989.

  4. Minireview

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Literature Watch
    4. Editorials
    5. Minireview
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Reports From the CDC: MMWR
    10. Book Review
    11. Images in Transplantation
    12. Letters to the Editor
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      Necroptosis in Immunity and Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury (pages 2797–2804)

      A. Linkermann, M. J. Hackl, U. Kunzendorf, H. Walczak, S. Krautwald and A. M. Jevnikar

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12448

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      Necroptosis, a recently identified form of necrosis regulated by receptor-interacting protein kinase 1/3, is rapidly emerging as a promising therapeutic target in ischemia, inflammatory organ injury and transplantation. Please see online supporting information for an accompanying video. Also see editorial by Mannon on page 2785 and article by Lau et al on page 2805.

  5. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Literature Watch
    4. Editorials
    5. Minireview
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Reports From the CDC: MMWR
    10. Book Review
    11. Images in Transplantation
    12. Letters to the Editor
    1. Basic Science

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      RIPK3-Mediated Necroptosis Promotes Donor Kidney Inflammatory Injury and Reduces Allograft Survival (pages 2805–2818)

      A. Lau, S. Wang, J. Jiang, A. Haig, A. Pavlosky, A. Linkermann, Z.-X. Zhang and A. M. Jevnikar

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12447

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      Inhibition of donor kidney receptor-interacting protein kinase–mediated necroptosis reduces inflammatory injury and prolongs allograft survival. See editorial by Mannon on page 2785 and minireview by Linkermann et al on page 2797.

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      Infiltrating Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells From Spontaneously Tolerant Kidney Allografts Demonstrate Donor-Specific Tolerance (pages 2819–2830)

      M. Hu, C. Wang, G. Y. Zhang, M. Saito, Y. M. Wang, M. A. Fernandez, Y. Wang, H. Wu, W. J. Hawthorne, C. Jones, P. J. O'Connell, T. Sparwasser, G. A. Bishop, A. F. Sharland and S. I. Alexander

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12445

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      The authors study regulatory T cells from tolerant kidney allografts and demonstrate that these cells exhibit potent and specific suppression.

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      CD40-Independent Help by Memory CD4 T Cells Induces Pathogenic Alloantibody But Does Not Lead to Long-Lasting Humoral Immunity (pages 2831–2841)

      M. Rabant, V. Gorbacheva, R. Fan, H. Yu and A. Valujskikh

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12432

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      These results in a murine model of heart transplantation show that donor-reactive memory CD4 T cells induce pathogenic IgG alloantibody in the absence of CD40/CD154 interactions but fail to promote differentiation of longlived plasma cells and memory B cells under these conditions.

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      TCR Repertoire Analysis by Next Generation Sequencing Allows Complex Differential Diagnosis of T Cell–Related Pathology (pages 2842–2854)

      M. Dziubianau, J. Hecht, L. Kuchenbecker, A. Sattler, U. Stervbo, C. Rödelsperger, P. Nickel, A. U. Neumann, P. N. Robinson, S. Mundlos, H.-D. Volk, A. Thiel, P. Reinke and N. Babel

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12431

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      This study describes the development and characterization of T cell receptor repertoire analysis based on Next Generation Sequencing and its application for complex differential diagnosis of posttransplant kidney dysfunction.

    5. Clinical Science

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      Kidney Intragraft Donor-Specific Antibodies as Determinant of Antibody-Mediated Lesions and Poor Graft Outcome (pages 2855–2864)

      T. Bachelet, L. Couzi, S. Lepreux, M. Legeret, G. Pariscoat, G. Guidicelli, P. Merville and J.-L. Taupin

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12438

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      Utilizing elution of donor-specific HLA-specific antibodies from kidney biopsies from functioning transplants, the authors report that in situ presence of antibodies behaves as a marker of rejection severity and of poor prognosis. See editorial by Sis on page 2790.

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      Microarray Diagnosis of Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Kidney Transplant Biopsies: An International Prospective Study (INTERCOM) (pages 2865–2874)

      P. F. Halloran, A. B. Pereira, J. Chang, A. Matas, M. Picton, D. De Freitas, J. Bromberg, D. Serón, J. Sellarés, G. Einecke and J. Reeve

      Article first published online: 3 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12465

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      The authors report that when the molecular antibody-mediated rejection score derived in a reference set of kidney transplant biopsies was tested in 300 new biopsies (the INTERCOM study), it validated the value of molecular testing for establishing not only diagnosis but also prognosis, and documented the difficulties centers have in making this diagnosis by conventional means.

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      Long-Term Belatacept Exposure Maintains Efficacy and Safety at 5 Years: Results From the Long-Term Extension of the BENEFIT Study (pages 2875–2883)

      L. Rostaing, F. Vincenti, J. Grinyó, K. M. Rice, B. Bresnahan, S. Steinberg, S. Gang, L. E. Gaite, M.-C. Moal, G. A. Mondragón-Ramirez, J. Kothari, L. Pupim and C. P. Larsen

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12460

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      This report presents the 5-year efficacy and safety results for the BENEFIT study of belatacept versus cyclosporine in kidney transplant. Also see article by Charpentier et al on page 2884.

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      Long-Term Exposure to Belatacept in Recipients of Extended Criteria Donor Kidneys (pages 2884–2891)

      B. Charpentier, J. O. Medina Pestana, M. del C. Rial, L. Rostaing, J. Grinyó, Y. Vanrenterghem, A. Matas, R. Zhang, F. Mühlbacher, L. Pupim and S. Florman

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12459

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      Recipients of extended criteria donor kidneys in the BENEFIT-EXT study who continued treatment with belatacept in a long-term study extension exhibited a consistent safety profile and maintained an 11‒14 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher GFR versus cyclosporine at 5 years posttransplant. Also see article by Rostaing et al on page 2875.

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      Consistency and Completeness of Reported Outcomes in Randomized Trials of Primary Immunosuppression in Kidney Transplantation (pages 2892–2901)

      P. Masson, F. A. Duthie, L. P. Ruster, P. J. Kelly, A. Merrifield, J. C. Craig and A. C. Webster

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12444

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      This review of 179 recently published randomized controlled trials in kidney transplantation shows that many core outcomes like graft loss and graft function are either not reported or are reported inconsistently, with outcome data incomplete in around 80% of trial reports, leading to potentially biased and misleading interpretations of interventions.

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      Impact of Calcineurin-Inhibitor Conversion to mTOR Inhibitor on Renal Allograft Function in a Prednisone-Free Regimen (pages 2902–2911)

      D. Chhabra, A. Alvarado, P. Dalal, J. Leventhal, C. Wang, N. Sustento-Reodica, N. Najafian, A. Skaro, J. Levitsky, V. Mas and L. Gallon

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12437

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      This prospective randomized trial in 200 patients demonstrates that conversion from tacrolimus to sirolimus at 12 months post–kidney transplantation in a prednisone-free immunosuppressive regimen is associated with similar rates of acute rejection, patient survival, graft survival and renal allograft function with over 48 months of follow-up.

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      Living Kidney Donor Assessment: Challenges, Uncertainties and Controversies Among Transplant Nephrologists and Surgeons (pages 2912–2923)

      A. Tong, J. R. Chapman, G. Wong and J. C. Craig

      Article first published online: 10 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12411

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      Qualitative interviews with transplant nephrologists and surgeons indicate that defining acceptable risks in living kidney donor assessment involves the complex interplay of donor autonomy and protecting donor safety, while contending with multiple responsibilities and ideological and contextual influences.

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      Health-Related Quality of Life in Kidney Donors From the Last Five Decades: Results From the RELIVE Study (pages 2924–2934)

      C. R. Gross, E. E. Messersmith, B. A. Hong, S. G. Jowsey, C. Jacobs, B. W. Gillespie, S. J. Taler, A. J. Matas, A. Leichtman, R. M. Merion, H. N. Ibrahim and for the RELIVE Study Group

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12434

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      Questionnaires completed by 2544 living donors 5 to 48 years postnephrectomy show that 80% have average or better health-related quality of life for their age and sex based on SF-36 norms and that obesity, history of psychiatric difficulties and nonwhite race are risk factors for poor health-related quality of life outcomes, whereas being older, having more education and/or being a first-degree relation to the recipient predict better outcomes.

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      Risk of Kidney Stones With Surgical Intervention in Living Kidney Donors (pages 2935–2944)

      S. M. Thomas, N. N. Lam, B. K. Welk, C. Nguan, A. Huang, D. M. Nash, G. V. R. Prasad, G. A. Knoll, J. J. Koval, K. L. Lentine, S. J. Kim, C. E. Lok, A. X. Garg and for the Donor Nephrectomy Outcomes Research (DONOR) Network

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12446

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      This cohort study finds no significant difference in the rates of kidney stones with surgical intervention or hospital encounters for kidney stones when comparing 2019 living kidney donors to 20 190 healthy nondonors.

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      Acute Cellular and Antibody-Mediated Rejection of the Pancreas Allograft: Incidence, Risk Factors and Outcomes (pages 2945–2955)

      S. V. Niederhaus, G. E. Leverson, D. F. Lorentzen, D. J. Robillard, H. W. Sollinger, J. D. Pirsch, J. R. Torrealba and J. S. Odorico

      Article first published online: 19 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12443

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      This study of “for-cause” pancreas allograft biopsies in transplant recipients demonstrates that antibodymediated rejection occurs in approximately 10% of patients in the first year with associated risk factors including retransplantation, solitary pancreas transplantation and donor-recipient race mismatch.

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      Cognitive Performance in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients (pages 2956–2965)

      T. Kaller, N. Langguth, F. Petermann, R. Ganschow, B. Nashan and K.-H. Schulz

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12408

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      The authors report that long-term cognitive impairment is highly prevalent in pediatric liver transplant recipients and is related to lower height at transplantation and pretransplant diagnosis. See editorial by Bucuvalas on page 2790.

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      “Plasma Cell Hepatitis” in Liver Allografts: Identification and Characterization of an IgG4-Rich Cohort (pages 2966–2977)

      M. Castillo-Rama, M. Sebagh, E. Sasatomi, P. Randhawa, K. Isse, A. D. Salgarkar, K. Ruppert, A. Humar and A. J. Demetris

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12413

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      An IgG4-rich cohort of patients with plasma cell hepatitis after liver transplantation shows demographical, histopathological and plasma cell phenotype features distinct from autoimmune hepatitis in native livers, suggesting distinct pathophysiological disease mechanisms likely representing an overlap between allo- and autoimmunity. See editorial by Manns and Mix on page 2792.

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      Coronary Revascularization in Lung Transplant Recipients With Concomitant Coronary Artery Disease (pages 2978–2988)

      A. W. Castleberry, J. T. Martin, A. A. Osho, M. G. Hartwig, Z. A. Hashmi, G. Zanotti, L. K. Shaw, J. B. Williams, S. S. Lin and R. D. Davis

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12435

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      A retrospective, observational cohort analysis of 791 lung transplant recipients from a large volume center demonstrates that candidates for lung transplantation need not be excluded due to coronary artery disease.

  6. Brief Communications

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Literature Watch
    4. Editorials
    5. Minireview
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Reports From the CDC: MMWR
    10. Book Review
    11. Images in Transplantation
    12. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
      HCC Patients Suffer Less From Geographic Differences in Organ Availability (pages 2989–2995)

      C. Schuetz, N. Dong, E. Smoot, N. Elias, D. A. Schoenfeld, J. F. Markmann and H. Yeh

      Article first published online: 6 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12441

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      An analysis of geographic disparities in liver transplantation shows that overall mortality for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma exception points does not increase with longer wait times, suggesting that this patient group can afford to wait longer between diagnosis and transplant. See editorial by Charlton on page 2794.

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      The Effect of Gender and Gender Match on Mortality in Pediatric Heart Transplantation (pages 2996–3002)

      L. Tosi, M. Federman, D. Markovic, R. Harrison and N. J. Halnon

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12451

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      The authors find that female gender is associated with increased mortality among pediatric heart transplant recipients while donor-recipient gender match poses no survival advantage.

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      A Prospective Study Analyzing One-Year Multidimensional Outcomes in Living Lung Transplant Donors (pages 3003–3009)

      F. Chen, T. Oga, H. Sakai, I. Matsumoto, T. Yamada, M. Sato, A. Aoyama, T. Bando, M. Mishima, K. Chin and H. Date

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12476

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      In a prospective evaluation of multidimensional outcomes in living lung transplant donors both before and after donation, the authors note possible postoperative deterioration in several aspects of health-related quality of life and dyspnea, although postoperative pulmonary functions were preserved.

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      Clinical Grade Manufacturing of Human Alloantigen-Reactive Regulatory T Cells for Use in Transplantation (pages 3010–3020)

      A. L. Putnam, N. Safinia, A. Medvec, M. Laszkowska, M. Wray, M. A. Mintz, E. Trotta, G. L. Szot, W. Liu, A. Lares, K. Lee, A. Laing, R. I. Lechler, J. L. Riley, J. A. Bluestone, G. Lombardi and Q. Tang

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12433

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      This study details a good manufacturing practice-compliant process for short-term selective expansion of donoralloantigen-reactive regulatory T cells for therapeutic applications in transplantation.

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      An Anti-CD154 Domain Antibody Prolongs Graft Survival and Induces Foxp3+ iTreg in the Absence and Presence of CTLA-4 Ig (pages 3021–3030)

      D. F. Pinelli, M. E. Wagener, D. Liu, A. Yamniuk, J. Tamura, S. Grant, C. P. Larsen, A. Suri, S. G. Nadler and M. L. Ford

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12417

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      Using a murine model of skin transplantation, this study demonstrates that treatment with a clinically translatable Fc–silent CD154–specific domain antibody attenuates alloreactive responses and leads to the conversion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, even in the presence of CTLA4–Ig.

  7. Case Reports

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Literature Watch
    4. Editorials
    5. Minireview
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Reports From the CDC: MMWR
    10. Book Review
    11. Images in Transplantation
    12. Letters to the Editor
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      Post–Liver Transplant Leptin Results in Resolution of Severe Recurrence of Lipodystrophy-Associated Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis (pages 3031–3034)

      S. P. Casey, J. Lokan, A. Testro, S. Farquharson, A. Connelly, J. Proietto and P. W. Angus

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12436

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      This case report describes the use of leptin therapy to reverse nonalcoholic steatohepatitis recurrence in a patient with acquired generalized lipodystrophy and associated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease who underwent liver transplantation.

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      Pirfenidone: A Potential New Therapy for Restrictive Allograft Syndrome? (pages 3035–3040)

      R. Vos, S. E. Verleden, D. Ruttens, E. Vandermeulen, J. Yserbyt, L. J. Dupont, D. E. Van Raemdonck, N. De Raedt, O. Gheysens, P. A. De Jong, G. M. Verleden and B. M. Vanaudenaerde

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12474

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      The authors report on the use of pirfenidone to treat a patient with restrictive allograft syndrome after lung transplantation.

  8. Reports From the CDC: MMWR

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Literature Watch
    4. Editorials
    5. Minireview
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Reports From the CDC: MMWR
    10. Book Review
    11. Images in Transplantation
    12. Letters to the Editor
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      Fatal West Nile Virus Infection After Probable Transfusion-Associated Transmission—Colorado, 2012 (pages 3041–3043)

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12529

      This report details West Nile virus transmission related to platelet transfusion from a donor when a minipool nucleic acid test was positive but the individual donor nucleic acid test was negative.

  9. Book Review

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Literature Watch
    4. Editorials
    5. Minireview
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Reports From the CDC: MMWR
    10. Book Review
    11. Images in Transplantation
    12. Letters to the Editor
    1. You have free access to this content
  10. Images in Transplantation

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Literature Watch
    4. Editorials
    5. Minireview
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Reports From the CDC: MMWR
    10. Book Review
    11. Images in Transplantation
    12. Letters to the Editor
    1. CME

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      Hepatic Encephalopathy Without Cirrhosis (pages 3045–3047)

      L. Sibulesky, J. M. McKinney, J. H. Nguyen and R. Satyanarayana

      Article first published online: 28 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12347

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  11. Letters to the Editor

    1. Top of page
    2. The AJT Report
    3. Literature Watch
    4. Editorials
    5. Minireview
    6. Original Articles
    7. Brief Communications
    8. Case Reports
    9. Reports From the CDC: MMWR
    10. Book Review
    11. Images in Transplantation
    12. Letters to the Editor
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    3. You have free access to this content
      Comprehensive Assessment and Standardization of Solid Phase Multiplex-Bead Arrays for the Detection of Antibodies to HLA-Drilling Down on Key Sources of Variation (pages 3050–3051)

      E. F. Reed, P. Rao, Z. Zhang, H. Gebel, R. A. Bray, I. Guleria, J. Lunz, T. Mohanakumar, P. Nickerson, A. R. Tambur, A. Zeevi, P. S. Heeger and D. Gjertson

      Article first published online: 18 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/ajt.12462

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