Prevalence and clinical relevance of local allergic rhinitis
- Edited by: Wytske Fokkens
Carmen Rondón, Laboratorio de Investigación, Hospital Civil, pabellón 5, sótano, Plaza del Hospital Civil, 29009 Malaga, Spain.
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Evidence demonstrates the existence of local allergic rhinitis (LAR) in nonatopic patients, although its prevalence in the rhinitis population remains unknown. The aim, therefore, of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and severity of LAR in a Spanish rhinitis population, compared with patients having classical allergic rhinitis (AR) with systemic atopy or nonallergic rhinitis (NAR).
A group of 452 adult rhinitis patients were randomly selected from a total of 3860 who attended our allergy service over 1 year. A clinical questionnaire, skin prick test (SPT), spirometry, and serum total and specific IgE (sIgE) were evaluated. A nasal allergen provocation test with multiple aeroallergens (NAPT-M), including Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, pollens, alternaria, and dog epithelia, was performed in patients with negative SPT and serum sIgE.
A total of 428 patients completed the study; 24 were excluded because of nasal hyper-reactivity. LAR was diagnosed in 25.7%, AR in 63.1%, and NAR in 11.2%. The LAR and AR patients had a similar clinical profile: a nonsmoking woman with severe, persistent perennial rhinitis frequently associated with conjunctivitis and asthma. More than 36% of LAR patients reported rhinitis onset in childhood. NAPT-M detected aeroallergen polysensitization in 37.3% of the LAR patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the main sensitizing aeroallergen in LAR and AR (60% vs 54%, P > 0.05).
Local allergic rhinitis is a prevalent entity in patients evaluated with rhinitis. Persistent and severe symptoms associated with conjunctivitis and/or asthma and polysensitization were likely to be detected in LAR and AR.