• 1
    Bach JF. The effect of infections on susceptibility to autoimmune and allergic diseases. N Engl J Med 2002;347:911920.
  • 2
    Vartiainen E, Petays T, Haahtela T, Jousilahti P, Pekkanen J. Allergic diseases, skin prick test responses, and IgE levels in North Karelia, Finland, and the Republic of Karelia, Russia. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109:643648.
  • 3
    von Mutius E, Radon K. Living on a farm: impact on asthma induction and clinical course. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2008;28:631647.
  • 4
    Korthals M, Ege MJ, Tebbe CC, von Mutius E, Bauer J. Application of PCR-SSCP for molecular epidemiological studies on the exposure of farm children to bacteria in environmental dust. J Microbiol Methods 2008;73:4956.
  • 5
    Ege MJ, Mayer M, Normand AC, Genuneit J, Cookson WO, Braun-Fahrlander C et al. Exposure to environmental microorganisms and childhood asthma. N Engl J Med 2011;364:701709.
  • 6
    Alfven T, Braun-Fahrlander C, Brunekreef B, von Mutius E, Riedler J, Scheynius A et al. Allergic diseases and atopic sensitization in children related to farming and anthroposophic lifestyle–the PARSIFAL study. Allergy 2006;61:414421.
  • 7
    Schram D, Doekes G, Boeve M, Douwes J, Riedler J, Ublagger E et al. Bacterial and fungal components in house dust of farm children, Rudolf Steiner school children and reference children–the PARSIFAL Study. Allergy 2005;60:611618.
  • 8
    Asher MI, Keil U, Anderson HR, Beasley R, Crane J, Martinez F et al. International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC): rationale and methods. Eur Respir J 1995;8:483491.
  • 9
    Korthals M, Ege M, Lick S, von Mutius E, Bauer J. Occurrence of Listeria spp. in mattress dust of farm children in Bavaria. Environ Res 2008;107:299304.
  • 10
    Ege MJ, Bieli C, Frei R, van Strien RT, Riedler J, Ublagger E et al. Prenatal farm exposure is related to the expression of receptors of the innate immunity and to atopic sensitization in school-age children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006;117:817823.
  • 11
    Ege MJ, Frei R, Bieli C, Schram-Bijkerk D, Waser M, Benz MR et al. Not all farming environments protect against the development of asthma and wheeze in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;119:11401147.
  • 12
    Debarry J, Garn H, Hanuszkiewicz A, Dickgreber N, Blumer N, von Mutius E et al. Acinetobacter lwoffii and Lactococcus lactis strains isolated from farm cowsheds possess strong allergy-protective properties. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;119:15141521.
  • 13
    Blumer N, Sel S, Virna S, Patrascan CC, Zimmermann S, Herz U et al. Perinatal maternal application of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG suppresses allergic airway inflammation in mouse offspring. Clin Exp Allergy 2007;37:348357.
  • 14
    Pakarinen J, Hyvarinen A, Salkinoja-Salonen M, Laitinen S, Nevalainen A, Makela MJ et al. Predominance of Gram-positive bacteria in house dust in the low-allergy risk Russian Karelia. Environ Microbiol 2008;10:33173325.
  • 15
    Nagase N, Sasaki A, Yamashita K, Shimizu A, Wakita Y, Kitai S et al. Isolation and species distribution of staphylococci from animal and human skin. J Vet Med Sci 2002;64:245250.
  • 16
    Rebecchi A, Crivori S, Sarra PG, Cocconcelli PS. Physiological and molecular techniques for the study of bacterial community development in sausage fermentation. J Appl Microbiol 1998;84:10431049.
  • 17
    Harvey J, Gilmour A. Application of current methods for isolation and identification of staphylococci in raw bovine milk. J Appl Bacteriol 1985;59:207221.
  • 18
    O'Halloran R, Bockelmann W, O'Cuinn G. Purification of an extracellular proteinase from Staphylococcus sciuri found on the surface of Tilsit cheese. Biochem Soc Trans 1998;26:S29.
  • 19
    Sommer P, Martin-Rouas C, Mettler E. Influence of the adherent population level on biofilm population, structure and resistance to chlorination. Food Microbiol 1999;16:503515.
  • 20
    Leriche V, Carpentier B. Limitation of adhesion and growth of Listeria monocytogenes on stainless steel surfaces by Staphylococcus sciuri biofilms. J Appl Microbiol 2000;88:594605.
  • 21
    Kloos WE, Ballard DN, George CG, Webster JA, Hubner RJ, Ludwig W et al. Delimiting the genus Staphylococcus through description of Macrococcus caseolyticus gen. nov., comb. nov. and Macrococcus equipercicus sp. nov., Macrococcus bovicus sp. nov. and Macrococcus carouselicus sp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 1998;48:859877.
  • 22
    Callon C, Duthoit F, Delbes C, Ferrand M, Le Frileux Y, De Cremoux R et al. Stability of microbial communities in goat milk during a lactation year: molecular approaches. Syst Appl Microbiol 2007;30:547560.
  • 23
    Krysinska-Traczyk E, Skorska C, Prazmo Z, Sitkowska J, Cholewa G, Dutkiewicz J. Exposure to airborne microorganisms, dust and endotoxin during flax scutching on farms. Ann Agric Environ Med 2004;11:309317.
  • 24
    Korf JE, Pynaert G, Tournoy K, Boonefaes T, Van Oosterhout A, Ginneberge D et al. Macrophage reprogramming by mycolic acid promotes a tolerogenic response in experimental asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006;174:152160.
  • 25
    Singleton TE, Massari P, Wetzler LM. Neisserial porin-induced dendritic cell activation is MyD88 and TLR2 dependent. J Immunol 2005;174:35453550.
  • 26
    Waser M, Michels KB, Bieli C, Floistrup H, Pershagen G, von Mutius E et al. Inverse association of farm milk consumption with asthma and allergy in rural and suburban populations across Europe. Clin Exp Allergy 2007;37:661670.
  • 27
    Loss G, Apprich S, Waser M, Kneifel W, Genuneit J, Buchele G et al. The protective effect of farm milk consumption on childhood asthma and atopy: The GABRIELA study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2011;128:766773. e4.
  • 28
    Frei R, Lauener RP, Crameri R, O'Mahony L. Microbiota and dietary interactions: an update to the hygiene hypothesis? Allergy 2012;67:451461.
  • 29
    Lambrecht BN, Hammad H. Biology of lung dendritic cells at the origin of asthma. Immunity 2009;31:412424.
  • 30
    Dicksved J, Floistrup H, Bergstrom A, Rosenquist M, Pershagen G, Scheynius A et al. Molecular fingerprinting of the fecal microbiota of children raised according to different lifestyles. Appl Environ Microbiol 2007;73:22842289.
  • 31
    Bisgaard H, Hermansen MN, Buchvald F, Loland L, Halkjaer LB, Bonnelykke K et al. Childhood asthma after bacterial colonization of the airway in neonates. N Engl J Med 2007;357:14871495.
  • 32
    Bachert C, Zhang N, Patou J, van Zele T, Gevaert P. Role of staphylococcal superantigens in upper airway disease. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;8:3438.
  • 33
    Nicolai T, Mutius EV, Reitmeir P, Wjst M. Reactivity to cold-air hyperventilation in normal and in asthmatic children in a survey of 5,697 schoolchildren in southern Bavaria. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;147:565572.
  • 34
    Vogel K, Blumer N, Korthals M, Mittelstadt J, Garn H, Ege M et al. Animal shed Bacillus licheniformis spores possess allergy-protective as well as inflammatory properties. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2008;122:307312.
  • 35
    Papadopoulos N, Arakawa H, Carlsen K, Custovic A, Gern J, Lemanske R et al. International consensu on (ICON) pediatric asthma. Allergy 2012;67:97697.