CD25+ regulatory T cells transfer n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids-induced tolerance in mice allergic to cow's milk protein
Recently, we have shown that dietary long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) largely prevent allergic sensitization in a murine model for cow's milk allergy. The aim of this study was to assess the contribution of regulatory T cells (Treg) in the prevention of food allergy by n-3 LCPUFA.
C3H/HeOuJ female donor mice were fed a control or fish oil diet before and during oral sensitization with cow's milk protein whey. Acute allergic skin response (ASR), anaphylaxis, body temperature, serum immunoglobulins, and mouse mast cell protease-1 (mmcp-1) were assessed. Splenocytes of sham- or whey-sensitized donor mice fed either control or fish oil diet were adoptively transferred to naïve recipient mice. Recipient mice received a whole splenocyte suspension, splenocytes ex vivo depleted of CD25+ cells, or MACS-isolated CD4+ CD25+ Treg. Recipient mice were sham- or whey-sensitized and fed control diet.
The ASR as well as whey-specific IgE and whey-specific IgG1 levels were reduced in whey-sensitized donor mice fed the fish oil diet as compared to the control diet. Splenocytes of control-diet-fed whey-sensitized donors transferred immunologic memory. By contrast, splenocytes of fish-oil-fed whey-sensitized – but not sham-sensitized – donors transferred tolerance to recipients as shown by a reduction in ASR and serum mmcp-1, and depletion of CD25+ Treg abrogated this. Transfer of CD25+ Treg confirmed the involvement of Treg in the suppression of allergic sensitization.
CD25+ Treg are crucial in whey allergy prevention by n-3 LCPUFA.