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Keywords:

  • children;
  • eczema;
  • haplotype;
  • single nucleotide polymorphism;
  • vitamin D

Abstract

Background

Vitamin D is increasingly recognized to play crucial roles in cutaneous immunity, and vitamin D treatment improved eczema control in small clinical trials. Several vitamin D-related genes were associated with asthma, but there are no data for eczema.

Methods

Twenty-three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of five vitamin D-related genes (CYP27A1, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, GC and VDR) were genotyped in 1442 Chinese children with eczema and 1231 non-allergic controls. SNPs that followed Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and yielded ≥95% genotyping call-rate were included. Haplotypic associations and SNP–SNP interactions for eczema diagnosis and subphenotypes were analysed.

Results

Atopic eczema was associated with rs4674343 of CYP27A1 (odds ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.53–0.83, P = 0.0004). Increased eosinophil percentage was associated with CYP2R1 rs2060793A (P = 0.001) and rs1933064A (P = 0.001). Two CYP2R1 haplotypes increased eczema risk whereas one VDR haplotype lowered eczema risk. GC rs7041 and CYP2R1 rs7935792 interacted to modulate total IgE (cross-validation consistency 10/10, P = 0.047). Specifically, high-risk eczema patients had higher log-transformed total IgE than low-risk patients (2.76 ± 0.76 vs 2.60 ± 0.80, P = 0.002).

Conclusion

A vitamin D-related SNP rs4674343 on CYP27A1 was found to be protective against atopic eczema. CYP2R1 and VDR haplotypes altered eczema susceptibility and eosinophil percentage, and GC and CYP2R1 interacted to determine total IgE among eczema patients.