• 1
    Heeringa J, van der Kuip DAM, Hofman A, et al.Prevalence, incidence and lifetime risk of atrial fibrillation: the Rotterdam study. European Heart Journal2006; 27: 94953.
  • 2
    Shirzad M, Karimi A, Tazik M, et al.Determinants of postoperative atrial fibrillation and associated resource utilization in cardiac surgery. Revista Espanola de Cardiologia2010; 63: 105460.
  • 3
    Kanji S, Williamson DR, Yaghchi BM, Albert M, McIntyre L. Epidemiology and management of atrial fibrillation in medical and noncardiac surgical adult intensive care unit patients. Journal of Critical Care2012; 27: 326. e1–e8.
  • 4
    Wakili R, Voigt N, Kääb S, Dobrev D, Nattel SRecent advances in the molecular pathophysiology of atrial fibrillation. Journal of Clinical Investigation2011; 121: 295568.
  • 5
    Wang Z, Lu Y, Yang BMicroRNAs and atrial fibrillation: new fundamentals. Cardiovascular Research2011; 89: 71021.
  • 6
    Lishmanov A, Chockalingam P, Senthilkumar A, Chockalingam ATachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy: evaluation and therapeutic options. Congestive Heart Failure2010; 16: 1226.
  • 7
    Macdonald JE, Struthers ADWhat is the optimal serum potassium level in cardiovascular patients?Journal of the American College of Cardiology2004; 43: 15561.
  • 8
    Usman Khan M, Komolafe BO, Weber KTCation interdependency in acute stressor states. [Epub ahead of print June 26, 2012]. American Journal of the Medical Sciences 2012. doi: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e318253cb07.
  • 9
    Davey MJ, Teubner DA randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulfate, in addition to usual care, for rate control in atrial fibrillation. Annals of Emergency Medicine2005; 45: 34753.
  • 10
    Reisinger J, Gstrein C, Winter T, et al.Optimization of initial energy for cardioversion of atrial tachyarrhythmias with biphasic shocks. American Journal of Emergency Medicine2010; 28: 15965.
  • 11
    Singh BNBeta-adrenergic blockers as antiarrhythmic and antifibrillatory compounds: an overview. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics2005; 10: S314.
  • 12
    Reiffel JA. Drug and drug-device therapy in heart failure patients in the post-COMET and SCD-HeFT era. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics2005; 10: S4558.
  • 13
    Patel A, Dunning J. Is sotalol more effective than standard beta-blockers for the prophylaxis of atrial fibrillation during cardiac surgery. Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery2005; 4: 14750.
  • 14
    Furushima H, Chinushi M, Okamura K, et al.Effect of dl-sotalol on mortality and recurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias: ischemic compared to nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology2007; 30: 113641.
  • 15
    Chaki AL, Caines AE, Miller ABSotalol as adjunctive therapy to implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in heart failure patients. Congestive Heart Failure2009; 15: 1447.
  • 16
    Darby AE, Dimarco JPManagement of atrial fibrillation in patients with structural heart disease. Circulation2012; 125: 94557.
  • 17
    Roth A, Kaluski E, Felner S, Heller K, Laniado SClonidine for patients with rapid atrial fibrillation. Annals of Internal Medicine1992; 116: 38890.
  • 18
    Simpson CS, Ghali WA, Sanfilippo AJ, Moritz S, Abdollah HClinical assessment of clonidine in the treatment of new-onset rapid atrial fibrillation: a prospective, randomized clinical trial. American Heart Journal2001; 142: E3.
  • 19
    Authors/Task Force Members, Camm AJ, Lip GYH, et al.2012 focused update of the ESC Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation. [epub ahead of print August 24, 2012]. European Heart Journal 2012. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehs253.
  • 20
    Podda GM, Casazza G, Casella F, Dipaola F, Scannella E, Tagliabue LAddressing the management of atrial fibrillation – a systematic review of the role of dronedarone. International Journal of General Medicine2012; 5: 46578.
  • 21
    Nikolaidou T, Channer KSChronic atrial fibrillation: a systematic review of medical heart rate control management. Postgraduate Medical Journal2009; 85: 30312.
  • 22
    Van Gelder IC, Groenveld HF, Crijns HJ, et al.Lenient versus strict rate control in patients with atrial fibrillation. New England Journal of Medicine2010; 362: 136373.
  • 23
    Jaber J, Cirenza C, Jaber J, et al.Influence of heart rate on quality of life in patients with chronic atrial fibrillation. Clinical Cardiology2010; 33: E2832.
  • 24
    Marinigh R, Lip GYH, Fiotti N, Giansante C, Lane DAAge as a risk factor for stroke in atrial fibrillation patients: implications for thromboprophylaxis. Journal of the American College of Cardiology2010; 56: 82737.
  • 25
    Gupta N, Haft JI, Bajaj S, et al.Role of the combined CHADS2 score and echocardiographic abnormalities in predicting stroke in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience2012; 19: 12425.
  • 26
    Mantha S, Ansell J. An indirect comparison of dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban for atrial fibrillation. Thrombosis and Haemostasis2012; 108: 47684.
  • 27
    Manolis AJ, Rosei EA, Coca A, et al.Hypertension and atrial fibrillation: diagnostic approach, prevention and treatment Position paper of the Working Group ‘Hypertension Arrhythmias and Thrombosis’ of the European Society of Hypertension. Journal of Hypertension2012; 30: 23952.
  • 28
    Thygesen K, Alpert JS, White HD, et al.Universal definition of myocardial infarction. Circulation2007; 116: 263453.
  • 29
    Hamm CW, Bassand JP, Agewall S, et al.ESC Guidelines for the management of acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation: The Task Force for the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in patients presenting without persistent ST-segment elevation of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). European Heart Journal2011; 32: 29993054.
  • 30
    Van de Werf F, Bax J, Betriu A, et al.Management of acute myocardial infarction in patients presenting with persistent ST-segment elevation: the Task Force on the Management of ST-Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction of the European Society of Cardiology. European Heart Journal2008; 29: 290945.
  • 31
    Kehl DW, Iqbal N, Fard A, Kipper BA, De La Parra Landa A, Maisel AS. Biomarkers in acute myocardial injury. Translational Research2012; 159: 25264.
  • 32
    Jneid H, Anderson JL, Wright RS, et al.2012 ACCF/AHA Focused Update of the Guideline for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (Updating the 2007 Guideline and Replacing the 2011 Focused Update): A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Journal of the American College of Cardiology2012; 60: 64581.
  • 33
    Domanski MJ, Mahaffey K, Hasselblad V, et al.Association of myocardial enzyme elevation and survival following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Journal of the American Medical Association2011; 305: 58591.
  • 34
    Devereaux PJ, Chan MT, Alonso-Coello P, et al.Association between postoperative troponin levels and 30-day mortality among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery. Journal of the American Medical Association2012; 307: 2295304.
  • 35
    Lim W, Qushmaq I, Devereaux PJ, et al.Elevated cardiac troponin measurements in critically ill patients. Archives of Internal Medicine2006; 166: 244654.
  • 36
    Kelley WE, Januzzi JL, Christenson RH. Increases of cardiac troponin in conditions other than acute coronary syndrome and heart failure. Clinical Chemistry2009; 55: 2098112.
  • 37
    Reynolds T, Cecconi M, Collinson P, Rhodes A, Grounds RM, Hamilton MA. Raised serum cardiac troponin I concentrations predict hospital mortality in intensive care unit patients. British Journal of Anaesthesia2012; 109: 21924.
  • 38
    McManus DD, Gore J, Yarzebski J, Spencer F, Lessard D, Goldberg RJ. Recent trends in the incidence, treatment, and outcomes of patients with STEMI and NSTEMI. American Journal of Medicine2011; 124: 407.
  • 39
    Yeh RW, Sidney S, Chandra M, Sorel M, Selby JV, Go AS. Population trends in the incidence and outcomes of acute myocardial infarction. New England Journal of Medicine2010; 362: 215565.
  • 40
    Collinson PO. Republished: sensitive troponin assays. Postgraduate Medical Journal2012; 88: 34852.
  • 41
    Shave R, Baggish A, George K, et al.Exercise-induced cardiac troponin elevation: evidence, mechanisms, and implications. Journal of the American College of Cardiology2010; 56: 16976.
  • 42
    Jaffe AS, Vasile VC, Milone M, Saenger AK, Olson KN, Apple FS. Diseased skeletal muscle: a noncardiac source of increased circulating concentrations of cardiac troponin T. Journal of the American College of Cardiology2011; 58: 181924.
  • 43
    Hallen J. Troponin for the estimation of infarct size: what have we learned?Cardiology2012; 121: 20412.
  • 44
    Chan D, Ng LL. Biomarkers in acute myocardial infarction. BMC Medicine2010; 8: 34.
  • 45
    Kemperman H, van den Berg M, Kirkels H, de Jonge N. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP in patients with end-stage heart failure supported by a left ventricular assist device. Clinical Chemistry2004; 50: 16702.
  • 46
    Farmakis D, Filippatos G, Tubaro M, et al.Natriuretic peptides in acute coronary syndromes: prognostic value and clinical implications. Congestive Heart Failure2008; 14: 259.
  • 47
    Christenson RH. What is the value of B-type natriuretic peptide testing for diagnosis, prognosis or monitoring of critically ill adult patients in intensive care?Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine2008; 46: 152432.
  • 48
    Noveanu M, Breidthardt T, Potocki M, et al.Direct comparison of serial B-type natriuretic peptide and NT-proBNP levels for prediction of short- and long-term outcome in acute decompensated heart failure. Critical Care2011; 15: R1.
  • 49
    Zapata L, Vera P, Roglan A, Gich I, Ordonez-Llanos J, Betbese AJ. B-type natriuretic peptides for prediction and diagnosis of weaning failure from cardiac origin. Intensive Care Medicine2011; 37: 47785.
  • 50
    Mekontso-Dessap A, de Prost N, Girou E, et al.B-type natriuretic peptide and weaning from mechanical ventilation. Intensive Care Medicine2006; 32: 152936.
  • 51
    Farmakis D, Parissis JT, Bistola V, et al.Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide reduction predicts long-term response to levosimendan therapy in acutely decompensated chronic heart failure. International Journal of Cardiology2010; 139: 759.
  • 52
    Prondzinsky R, Lemm H, Swyter M, et al.Intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock: the prospective, randomized IABP SHOCK Trial for attenuation of multiorgan dysfunction syndrome. Critical Care Medicine2010; 38: 15260.
  • 53
    Drew BJ, Califf RM, Funk M, et al.Practice standards for electrocardiographic monitoring in hospital settings. Circulation2004; 110: 272146.
  • 54
    Funk M, Winkler CG, May JL, et al.Unnecessary arrhythmia monitoring and underutilization of ischemia and QT interval monitoring in current clinical practice: baseline results of the practical use of the latest standards for electrocardiography trial. Journal of Electrocardiology2010; 43: 5427.
  • 55
    Landesberg G, Mosseri M, Wolf Y, Vesselov Y, Weissman C. Perioperative myocardial ischemia and infarction: identification by continuous 12-lead electrocardiogram with online ST-segment monitoring. Anesthesiology2002; 96: 26470.
  • 56
    Fox L, Kirkendall C, Craney M. Continuous ST-segment monitoring in the intensive care unit. Critical Care Nurse2010; 30: 3343.
  • 57
    Chandra S, Singh V, Nehra M, Agarwal D, Singh N. ST-segment elevation in non-atherosclerotic coronaries: a brief overview. Internal and Emergency Medicine2011; 6: 12939.
  • 58
    Hanna EB, Glancy DL. ST-segment depression and T-wave inversion: classification, differential diagnosis, and caveats. Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine2011; 78: 40414.
  • 59
    Shah BN, Ahmadvazir S, Pabla JS, Zacharias K, Senior RThe role of urgent transthoracic echocardiography in the evaluation of patients presenting with acute chest pain. European Journal of Emergency Medicine2012; 19: 27783.
  • 60
    Pakkal M, Raj V, McCann GP. Non-invasive imaging in coronary artery disease including anatomical and functional evaluation of ischaemia and viability assessment. British Journal of Radiology2011; 84: S28095.
  • 61
    Ghoshhajra BB, Maurovich-Horvat P, Techasith T, et al.Infarct detection with a comprehensive cardiac CT protocol. Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography2012; 6: 1423.
  • 62
    D’Ascenzo F, Biondi-Zoccai G, Moretti C, et al.TIMI, GRACE and alternative risk scores in acute coronary syndromes: a meta-analysis of 40 derivation studies on 216,552 patients and of 42 validation studies on 31,625 patients. Contemporary Clinical Trials2012; 33: 50714.
  • 63
    Levine GN, Bates ER, Blankenship JC, et al.2011 ACCF/AHA/SCAI Guideline for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics2011; 79: 45395.
  • 64
    Rockswold SB, Rockswold GL, Zaun DA, et al.A prospective, randomized clinical trial to compare the effect of hyperbaric to normobaric hyperoxia on cerebral metabolism, intracranial pressure, and oxygen toxicity in severe traumatic brain injury. Journal of Neurosurgery2010; 112: 108094.
  • 65
    Kumaria A, Tolias CM. Normobaric hyperoxia therapy for traumatic brain injury and stroke: a review. British Journal of Neurosurgery2009; 23: 57684.
  • 66
    Kilgannon JH, Jones AE, Shapiro NI, et al.Association between arterial hyperoxia following resuscitation from cardiac arrest and in-hospital mortality. Journal of the American Medical Association2010; 303: 216571.
  • 67
    Altemeier WA, Sinclair SE. Hyperoxia in the intensive care unit: why more is not always better. Current Opinion in Critical Care2007; 13: 738.
  • 68
    Farquhar H, Weatherall M, Wijesinghe M, et al.Systematic review of studies of the effect of hyperoxia on coronary blood flow. American Heart Journal2009; 158: 3717.
  • 69
    Wijesinghe M, Perrin K, Ranchord A, Simmonds M, Weatherall M, Beasley R. Routine use of oxygen in the treatment of myocardial infarction: systematic review. Heart2009; 95: 198202.
  • 70
    Fitzgerald R, Pirmohamed M. Aspirin resistance: effect of clinical, biochemical and genetic factors. Pharmacology and Therapeutics2011; 130: 21325.
  • 71
    Eisen DP, Reid D, McBryde ES. Acetyl salicylic acid usage and mortality in critically ill patients with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis. Critical Care Medicine2012; 40: 17617.
  • 72
    Sibbing D, Byrne RA, Bernlochner I, Kastrati A. High platelet reactivity and clinical outcome – fact and fiction. Thrombosis and Haemostasis2011; 106: 191202.
  • 73
    Ranucci M, Ballotta A, Kandil H, et al.Bivalirudin-based versus conventional heparin anticoagulation for postcardiotomy extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Critical Care2011; 15: R275.
  • 74
    Stratmann G, deSilva AM, Tseng EE, et al.Reversal of direct thrombin inhibition after cardiopulmonary bypass in a patient with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Anesthesia and Analgesia2004; 98: 16359.
  • 75
    Westaby S, Anastasiadis K, Wieselthaler GM. Cardiogenic shock in ACS Part 2: role of mechanical circulatory support. Nature Reviews. Cardiology2012; 9: 195208.
  • 76
    Westaby S, Kharbanda R, Banning AP. Cardiogenic shock in ACS Part 1: prediction, presentation and medical therapy. Nature Reviews. Cardiology2011; 9: 15871.
  • 77
    Cannon CP, Braunwald E, McCabe CH, et al.Intensive versus moderate lipid lowering with statins after acute coronary syndromes. New England Journal of Medicine2004; 350: 1495504.
  • 78
    Gibson CM, Pride YB, Hochberg CP, Sloan S, Sabatine MS, Cannon CP. Effect of intensive statin therapy on clinical outcomes among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndrome: PCI-PROVE IT: A PROVE IT-TIMI 22 (pravastatin or atorvastatin evaluation and infection therapy-thrombolysis in myocardial infarction 22) substudy. Journal of the American College of Cardiology2009; 54: 22905.
  • 79
    MHRA. Statins: interactions, and updated advice for atorvastatin. Drug Safety Update2008; 1: 2.
  • 80
    Angeli F, Verdecchia P, Karthikeyan G, et al.New-onset hyperglycemia and acute coronary syndrome: a systematic overview and meta-analysis. Current Diabetes Review2010; 6: 10210.
  • 81
    Liu Y, Yang YM, Zhu J, Tan HQ, Liang Y, Li JD. Anaemia and prognosis in acute coronary syndromes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of International Medical Research2012; 40: 4355.
  • 82
    Willis P, Voeltz MD. Anemia, hemorrhage, and transfusion in percutaneous coronary intervention, acute coronary syndromes, and ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. American Journal of Cardiology2009; 104: 34C8C.