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Summary

In this second article we examine the principles underlying delivery of the components of anaesthesia. Topics considered include anaesthetic technique, management of the airway and lung ventilation, induction and maintenance of anaesthesia, patient monitoring including the place of cardiac output devices. We summarise recent research on the management of shock and sepsis syndromes including goal directed therapy and examine some controversies around intravenous fluid therapy. Finally, we discuss intra-operative awareness and challenges during emergence including peri-operative cognitive dysfunction.