• 1
    National Confidential Enquiry into Patient Outcome and Death. Trauma: Who Cares?. London: NCEPOD, 2007.
  • 2
    National Audit Office. Major Trauma Care in England. London: The Stationery Office, 2010.
  • 3
    Lendrum RA, Lockey DJ. Trauma system development. Anaesthesia 2013; 68: 309.
  • 4
    American College of Surgeons Trauma Committee. Advanced Trauma Life Support Program for Physicians, 8th edn. Chicago: American College of Surgeons, 2008.
  • 5
    McKeown D. Should the UK develop and run its own advanced trauma course? Emergency Medicine Journal 2005; 22: 67.
  • 6
    Nolan JP. Advanced trauma life support in the United Kingdom: time to move on. Emergency Medicine Journal 2005; 22: 34.
  • 7
    de Knegt C, Meylaerts SA, Leenen LP. Applicability of the trimodal distribution of trauma deaths in a Level I trauma centre in the Netherlands with a population of mainly blunt trauma. Injury 2008; 39: 9931000.
  • 8
    Demetriades D, Kimbrell B, Salim A, et al. Trauma deaths in a mature urban trauma system: is “trimodal” distribution a valid concept? Journal of the American College of Surgeons 2005; 201: 3438.
  • 9
    Guly H, Bouamra O, Spiers M, Dark P, Coats T, Lecky F. Vital signs and estimated blood loss in patients with major trauma: testing the validity of the ATLS classification of hypovolaemic shock. Resuscitation 2011; 82: 5569.
  • 10
    Pang J, Civil I, Ng A, Adams D, Koelmeyer T. Is the trimodal pattern of death after trauma a dated concept in the 21st century? Trauma deaths in Auckland 2004. Injury 2008; 39: 1026.
  • 11
    Mercer SJ, Tarmey NT, Woolley T, Wood P, Mahoney PF. Haemorrhage and coagulopathy in the Defence Medical Services. Anaesthesia 2013; 68: 4960.
  • 12
    Gerhardt RT, Strandenes G, Cap AP, et al. Remote damage control resuscitation and the Solstrand Conference: defining the need, the language, and a way forward. Transfusion 2013; 53: 9S16S.
  • 13
    Harris T, Rhys Thomas GO, Brohi K. Early fluid resuscitation in severe trauma. British Medical Journal 2012; 345: e5752.
  • 14
    Jansen JO, Thomas R, Loudon MA, Brooks A. Damage control resuscitation for patients with major trauma. British Medical Journal 2009; 338.
  • 15
    Rossaint R, Bouillon B, Cerny V, et al. Management of bleeding following major trauma: an updated European guideline. Critical Care 2010; 14: R52.
  • 16
    Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liason Committee. Trauma Emergencies in Adults Overview. Warwick: The University of Warwick, 2006.
  • 17
    Cannon W, Fraser J, Cowell E. The preventative treatment of wound shock. Journal of the American Medical Association 1918; 70: 61821.
  • 18
    Cowell E. The initiation of wound shock. Journal of the American Medical Association 1918; 70: 60710.
  • 19
    Wiggers HC, Ingraham RC. Hemorrhagic shock: definition and criteria for its diagnosis. Journal of Clinical Investigation 1946; 25: 30.
  • 20
    Shires T, Coln D, Carrico J, Lightfoot S. Fluid therapy in hemorrhagic shock. Archives of Surgery 1964; 88: 68893.
  • 21
    Bickell WH, Bruttig SP, Millnamow GA, O'Benar J, Wade CE. The detrimental effects of intravenous crystalloid after aortotomy in swine. Surgery 1991; 110: 52936.
  • 22
    Mapstone J, Roberts I, Evans P. Fluid resuscitation strategies: a systematic review of animal trials. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 2003; 55: 57189.
  • 23
    Roberts I, Kwan I, Evans P, Haig S. Does animal experimentation inform human healthcare? Observations from a systematic review of international animal experiments on fluid resuscitation. British Medical Journal 2002; 324: 4746.
  • 24
    Bickell WH, Wall MJ, Pepe PE, et al. Immediate versus delayed fluid resuscitation for hypotensive patients with penetrating torso injuries. New England Journal of Medicine 1994; 331: 11059.
  • 25
    Ho AMH, Dion PW, Ng CSH, Karmakar MK. Understanding immortal time bias in observational cohort studies. Anaesthesia 2013; 68: 12630.
  • 26
    Dutton RP, Mackenzie CF, Scalea TM. Hypotensive resuscitation during active hemorrhage: impact on in-hospital mortality. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 2002; 52: 11416.
  • 27
    Siegel J. Immediate versus delayed fluid resuscitation in patients with trauma. New England Journal of Medicine 1995; 332: 6813.
  • 28
    Turner J, Nicholl J, Webber L, Cox H, Dixon S, Yates D. A randomised controlled trial of prehospital intravenous fluid replacement therapy in serious trauma. Health Technology Assessment (Winchester, England) 2000; 4: 1.
  • 29
    Dula DJ, Woog GC, Rejmer RA, Starr M, Leicht M. Use of prehospital fluids in hypotensive blunt trauma patients. Prehospital Emergency Care 2002; 6: 41720.
  • 30
    Lefering R, Paffrath T, Bouamra O, et al. Epidemiology of in-hospital trauma deaths. European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery 2012; 38: 39.
  • 31
    Chesnut RM, Marshall LF, Klauber MR, et al. The role of secondary brain injury in determining outcome from severe head injury. Journal of Trauma 1993; 34: 21622.
  • 32
    The Association of Anaesthetsists of Great Britain & Ireland. Recommendations for the Safe Transfer of Patients with Brain Injury. London: AAGBI, 2006.
  • 33
    Maas AI, Dearden M, Teasdale GM, et al. EBIC-guidelines for management of severe head injury in adults. European Brain Injury Consortium. Acta Neurochirurgica 1997; 139: 28694.
  • 34
    Berry C, Ley EJ, Bukur M, et al. Redefining hypotension in traumatic brain injury. Injury 2012; 43: 18337.
  • 35
    Murray GM, Teasdale GD, Murray DJ, Miller JD, Pickard MDM, Shaw LS. Head injuries in four British neurosurgical centres. British Journal of Neurosurgery 1999; 13: 5649.
  • 36
    Foulkes MA, Eisenberg HM, Jane JA, Marmarou A, Marshall LF. The Traumatic Coma Data Bank: design, methods, and baseline characteristics. Journal of Neurosurgery (Special Supplements) 1991; 75: S813.
  • 37
    Murray GD, Teasdale GM, Braakman R, et al. The European Brain Injury Consortium Survey of Head Injuries. Acta Neurochirurgica 1999; 141: 22336.
  • 38
    Stocchetti N, Paterno R, Citerio G, Beretta L, Colombo A. Traumatic brain injury in an aging population. Journal of Neurotrauma 2012; 29: 111925.
  • 39
    Myburgh JA, Cooper DJ, Finfer SR, et al. Epidemiology and 12-month outcomes from traumatic brain injury in Australia and New Zealand. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 2008; 64: 85462.
  • 40
    Hasler RM, Nuesch E, Juni P, Bouamra O, Exadaktylos AK, Lecky F. Systolic blood pressure below 110 mmHg is associated with increased mortality in blunt major trauma patients: multicentre cohort study. Resuscitation 2011; 82: 12027.
  • 41
    Hasler RM, Nuesch E, Juni P, Bouamra O, Exadaktylos AK, Lecky F. Systolic blood pressure below 110 mmHg is associated with increased mortality in penetrating major trauma patients: multicentre cohort study. Resuscitation 2012; 83: 47681.
  • 42
    Sperry JL, Minei JP, Frankel HL, et al. Early use of vasopressors after injury: caution before constriction. The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery 2008; 64: 914.
  • 43
    Tobin JM, Varon AJ. Update in trauma anesthesiology: perioperative resuscitation management. Anesthesia and Analgesia 2012; 115: 132633.
  • 44
    Ertmer C, Kampmeier T, Rehberg S, Lange M. Fluid resuscitation in multiple trauma patients. Current Opinion in Anesthesiology 2011; 24: 2028.