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Keywords:

  • circadian rhythm disorders;
  • insomnia;
  • multiple sclerosis;
  • narcolepsy;
  • obstructive sleep apnea;
  • restless legs syndrome;
  • REM sleep behavior disorder

The major sleep disorders are common in multiple sclerosis (MS) and are associated with significant morbidity. Despite this, the rate of recognition and management of these conditions are low. All types of sleep disorders are seen in patients with MS: insomnia, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, sleep-related movement disorders, sleep-related breathing disorders, hypersomnia (narcolepsy), and parasomnia (REM sleep behavior disorder; RBD). This literature review covers the prevalence, clinical features, and treatment of sleep disorders in MS. Based on clinical experience, the spectrum of symptoms associated with MS, and the current knowledge of MS pathophysiology, we have also enclosed proposed strategies for clinical assessment and investigation of sleep disorders in MS patients.