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Higher levels of reported sun exposure, and not vitamin D status, are associated with less depressive symptoms and fatigue in multiple sclerosis

Authors

  • S. Knippenberg,

    Corresponding author
    1. School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    2. Academic MS Center Limburg, Orbis Medical Center, Sittard, The Netherlands
    3. Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    • S. Knippenberg, School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University Medical Center, Universiteitssingel 50, room 5, PO box 616, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands

      Tel.: +31 (0)43 388 1432

      Fax: +31 (0)43 388 4164

      e-mail: S.Knippenberg@maastrichtuniversity.nl

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  • J. Damoiseaux,

    1. Central Diagnostic Laboratory, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands
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  • Y. Bol,

    1. Academic MS Center Limburg, Orbis Medical Center, Sittard, The Netherlands
    2. Department of Medical Psychology and Psychiatry, Orbis Medical Center, Sittard, The Netherlands
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  • R. Hupperts,

    1. School for Mental Health and Neuroscience, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands
    2. Academic MS Center Limburg, Orbis Medical Center, Sittard, The Netherlands
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  • B. V. Taylor,

    1. Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
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  • A.-L. Ponsonby,

    1. Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
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  • T. Dwyer,

    1. Murdoch Childrens Research Institute, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
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  • S. Simpson,

    1. Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
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  • I. A. F. van der Mei

    1. Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia
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Abstract

Objective

Insufficient sun exposure and vitamin D deficiency have both been associated with increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS). Depressi on, anxiety, fatigue and cognitive impairment are prevalent and disabling symptoms in MS. Our objective was to examine the associations between personal sun exposure and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and depression, anxiety, fatigue and cognition.

Methods

A total of 198 participants with multiple sclerosis were followed prospectively for an average of 2.3 years. Assessments of serum 25(OH)D, sun exposure, depression, anxiety and fatigue were carried out biannually; cognition was assessed annually.

Results

Personal reported sun exposure was inversely associated with depression scores (β −0.26 (95%CI −0.40, −0.12);P ≤ 0.001) and fatigue scores (β −0.65 (95%CI −1.23, −0.07); P = 0.028). Only high levels of 25(OH)D (>80 nm) were inversely associated depression scores (β −0.64 (95%CI −1.15, −0.13); P = 0.015), but this was not significant after adjustment for reported sun exposure. No associations were seen between reported sun exposure or serum 25(OH)D levels and anxiety or cognition scores.

Conclusion

We found that higher levels reported sun exposure, rather than 25(OH)D levels, were associated with less depressive symptoms and levels of fatigue. The role of UV or light therapy will need to be evaluated in randomized controlled trials to confirm an effect on these symptoms in MS.

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