• carotid stenosis;
  • stroke;
  • treatment;
  • carotid angioplasty and stenting;
  • carotid endarterectomy


The goals of the study were to assess US nationwide trends in hospital outcome following carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) and to determine potential predictors of outcome.


The Nationwide Inpatient Sample, constituting a 20% representative and stratified sample of non-federal US hospitals, was analyzed retrospectively from years 1998 to 2007.


The annual number of CEA decreased (137,877–111,658) and increased for CAS (2318–14,415). Inhospital mortality following CEA decreased from 0.4% to 0.3% (P < 0.001), whereas long-term facility (LTF) discharge increased from 8.2% to 10.5% (P < 0.001). Discharge outcome improved for CAS in both categories (mortality 2–0.5%; LTF discharge 10.7–8.3%; both P < 0.001). The trend analysis revealed an increase in patient age and a worsening comorbid profile over time. Age, women, length of stay, atrial fibrillation, and carotid stenosis with infarction were important determinants of unfavorable hospital outcome.


From a nationwide practice perspective, the number of carotid revascularizations fell by 10%. CEA has resulted in stable hospital mortality rates. Meanwhile, CAS has been increasingly utilized with overall improvement in short-term outcome. Our results further suggest a decrease in the number of patients with treatment-eligible carotid disease over time. However, the increasing prevalence of high-risk comorbidity in the aging population may pose a challenge to revascularization strategies.