Olfactory dysfunction in sporadic Parkinson's Disease and LRRK2 carriers

Authors

  • K. K. Johansen,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Neurology, St Olavs University Hospital, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
    2. Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
    • K. K. Johansen, Department of Neurology, St Olavs University Hospital, Edvard Griegs gate 8, 7030-Trondheim, Norway

      Tel.: +47 725 75793

      Fax: +47 725 75774

      e-mail: krisztina.k.johansen@ntnu.no

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  • B. J. Warø,

    1. Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
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  • J. O. Aasly

    1. Department of Neurology, St Olavs University Hospital, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
    2. Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway
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Abstract

Objective

The aim of the study was to examine the sense of smell in LRRK2 mutation carriers and in patients with sporadic PD (sPD).

Materials and Methods

A total of 343 individuals were included: 275 sPD of whom 90 were de novo patients with sPD, 17 LRRK2 PD, 36 healthy LRRK2 mutation carriers, and 15 healthy family members without mutation. All subjects underwent neurologic examination and olfactory sense testing with B-SIT (a 12–item test). Linear regression analysis was applied to build different models with B-SIT as dependent variable.

Results

Sporadic PD had significantly lower scores in olfaction compared with LRRK2 PD (< 0.001). B-SIT scores were lowest in medicated sPD, and higher scores were found in de novo patients. LRRK2 PD had similar sense of smell to healthy LRRK2 mutation carriers and to healthy family members without mutation when adjusting for age.

Conclusion

Hyposmia was pronounced already at time of diagnosis in the sPD cases but was not present in healthy LRRK2 mutation carriers and less pronounced in LRRK2 PD compared with sporadic cases. Smell testing may be a preclinical marker in sporadic PD but does not seem applicable in LRRK2 cases.

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