The Occupy Movement and the Top 1% in Canada
Article first published online: 27 AUG 2013
© 2013 The Author. Antipode © 2013 Antipode Foundation Ltd.
Volume 46, Issue 1, pages 13–33, January 2014
How to Cite
Breau, S. (2014), The Occupy Movement and the Top 1% in Canada. Antipode, 46: 13–33. doi: 10.1111/anti.12044
- Issue published online: 6 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 27 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 9 JUL 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 25 JUN 2013
- Manuscript Received: 15 NOV 2012
- income inequality;
- top 1%;
- Occupy movement;
The Occupy movement catalyzed public debate on the issue of growing income inequality. This paper examines recent patterns of inequality in Canada, paying particular attention to changes in the characteristics of the top 1% of income earners. At the national level, the gap between the top percentile and the other 99% has widened considerably: in 2006, 11% of the nation's income was concentrated in the hands of top earners (whose mean income of $344,000 is 11 times that of the average Canadian) compared with 7.7% just 15 years earlier. Beneath such national-level figures lie important geographical differences in the income hierarchy: the thresholds, average incomes and socio-economic characteristics of the top 1% vary widely across provinces and cities. Among the most important spatial shifts observed is the growing concentration of high-income groups in energy-rich Western Canada, where Calgary has become the most unequal city in the country.