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Keywords:

  • additives;
  • contaminants;
  • fish feed;
  • metals;
  • time trends;
  • vitamins

Abstract

This article presents data on commercial, Norwegian fish feeds from 2000 to 2010, including elements, additives, some selected vitamins and a range of environmental contaminants. Iodine, selenium and vitamin D concentrations, all declined during the time period; simultaneously, a reduction in marine ingredients in feeds has occurred. Still, the feeds fulfilled known fish nutrient requirements. Arsenic (As) in the feed was fitted with a polynomial regression with peak concentrations in 2004, correlating with fishery landings of blue whiting (Micromesistus poutassou), a reduction species with high content of As. A polynomial regression was also significant for mercury, which peaked in 2005 and was correlated to fish meal (FM) inclusion in the feeds. Residues of the pesticide DDT and its metabolites, chlordane and toxaphene, as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers and sum dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs, all decreased during this time period. These positive changes in undesirable substances can likely be attributed to the increasing replacement of marine ingredients with plant ingredients, as well as the increased use of South American fish oils rather than North Atlantic ones. On the other hand, cadmium concentrations were twofold higher in South American FMs, and increased in feeds from 2000 to 2010.