Enhancement of innate immune system, survival and yield in Penaeus monodon reared in ponds using Streptococcus phocae PI80



The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary and water supplementation of probiotic Streptococcus phocae PI80 on growth, immune response and feed utilization of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon in earthen ponds. The probiotic bacterium S. phocae PI80 was cultured in large fermenter (50 L) by adding additional carbon source in the form of molasses and glucose along with yeast extract as nitrogen source to enrich S. phocae PI80 biomass. This enriched S. phocae PI80 was administered to shrimp in feed (6.5 × 1013 bacterial cells mL−1) as well as in pond water (5 L/pond). Shrimp growth performance was significantly improved (P < 0.05) in 120 days culture when the average body weight of treated molasses + yeast extract (MY) (28.41 ± 0.874 g), glucose + yeast extract (GY) (27.013 ± 0.698 g) was significantly higher than control (23.63 ± 0.684 g). Food conversion ratio FCR was also found to be reduced significantly in ponds treated with probiotics when compared with control pond (1.89 ± 0.09). Vibrio and luminescent bacteria were found to be lower in the treatment receiving MY group, and we hypothesize that this may lead to greater shrimp survival. Furthermore, fermentation product of S. phocae PI80 added to pond water and feed additives enhanced the shrimp immune system. The results indicated that total haemocytes count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, NBT reductase assay and phagocytic activity significantly increased in shrimps treated with S. phocae PI80. Our study demonstrates that administration of S. phocae PI80 in the water and feed at 6.5 × 1013 colony-forming units (CFU) mL−1 bacterial cells induce immune modulation and enhances the immune ability of P. monodon in pond-reared shrimp and increased the shrimp production.