A 4-week feeding trial was conducted to determine the effects of oxidized fish oil (OFO, POV: 234.84 meq kg−1) on growth performance and oxidative stress of Litopenaeus vannamei. Five diets containing various OFO levels (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 g kg−1) with the same dietary lipid level were fed to L. vannamei. The results showed that the body weight gain and the specific growth rate of the shrimp fed with 50, 75 and 100 g kg−1 of OFO diets decreased significantly (P < 0.05), whereas the hepatosomatic index increased significantly (P < 0.05). The malondialdehyde concentrations in the serum and muscle of the shrimp fed with 50, 75 and 100 g kg−1 of OFO diets were significantly higher than that of the shrimp fed with fresh fish oil (P < 0.05). The total antioxidant competence decreased significantly compared with the control group. Therefore, dietary OFO affects the growth performance and increases the oxidative stress of shrimp.