Objective. To provide insight into the differential effect of immigration on cesarean section (CS) rates, using the Robson classification. Design. A population-based study using birth certificates from the birth registry of 2009. Setting. All births in two of the three Belgian regions excluding Flanders. Population. 37 628 deliveries from Belgian and immigrant mothers from sub-Saharan Africa, Maghreb and Eastern Europe. Methods. Multivariate analyses using CS as the dependent variable and immigration status as the primary independent variable. Several multivariate logistic regression models were built including medical, anthropometric, socio-economic characteristics, and medical interventions. The impact of analyzing all delivery sites together was tested using mixed-effect analyses. Main outcome measures. CSs of immigrant subgroups compared with Belgian women. Results. CS rates varied according to immigrant subgroups. Mothers from sub-Saharan Africa had an adjusted odds ratio of 2.06 (1.62–2.63) for CS compared with Belgian natives. Increased risk for mothers from sub-Saharan Africa compared with Belgian natives was found among nulliparous and multiparous women without previous CS, and a term, singleton fetus in cephalic position. In comparison, nulliparous East European mothers with a term singleton fetus in cephalic position in spontaneous labor had an adjusted odds ratio of 0.29 (0.08–0.99) for CS. Conclusions. CS rates currently vary between Robson categories in immigrant subgroups. Immigrant mothers from sub-Saharan Africa with a term, singleton infant in cephalic position, without previous CS, appear to carry the highest burden.