Objective. Using two large-scale nationwide population-based data sets, this study aimed to assess the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes between mothers with and without urinary calculi. Design. Cross-sectional study. Setting. Taiwan. Sample. This study included 3694 women who had live singleton births and received a diagnosis of urinary calculi (UC) in the year prior to their delivery, as well as 18 470 matched women without UC, who were used as a comparison group. Methods. Conditional logistic regression analyses were performed. Main outcome measures. Low birthweight, preterm birth, small for gestational age, cesarean section, lower Apgar score and pre-eclampsia/eclampsia. Results. Women with UC had a higher prevalence of low-birthweight neonates (7.4 vs. 6.0%, p = 0.003), preterm births (9.5 vs. 7.3%, p < 0.001) and cesarean sections (43.1 vs. 35.4%, p < 0.001) than women without UC. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, women with UC were more likely than women without UC to have low-birthweight neonates (odds ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.39), preterm birth (odds ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.13–1.43) and cesarean sections (odds ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.28–1.48). Conclusions. There were increased risks for having low-birthweight, preterm infants and for experiencing cesarean section among women with UC in comparison to women without UC.