Objective. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of hyperandrogenemia on glucose metabolism in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients. Design. Cohort study. Setting. Reproductive Endocrinology Clinic of the Shanghai Sixth People's Hospital. Sample. Fifty-three patients were recruited from June 2008 to December 2009, including 28 women with hyperandrogenism and 25 without hyperandrogenemia. Methods. Anthropometric parameters, including weight, height, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio, as well as sex hormones, were measured. An oral glucose tolerance test, including fasting and two hour glucose and insulin levels, was recorded. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, and patients underwent continuous glucose monitoring. Main outcome measures. Mean blood glucose level, mean amplitude of glycemic excursion, frequency of glycemic excursion and the percentage of time of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia during a 48 h period. Results. No differences in age, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, fasting and two hour glucose and insulin concentrations were observed between the groups. The hyperandrogenism group had higher levels of luteinizing hormone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (p < 0.05). However, continuous glucose monitoring showed that the minimal blood glucose and mean blood glucose were significantly higher in hyperandrogenemia group (p = 0.004). The percentage of time for hypoglycemia (≤70 mg/dL) was higher in the hyperandrogenemia group (p = 0.002). Conclusions. Polycystic ovarian syndrome patients with hyperandrogenemia had an increased mean glucose value, which may place them at increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes.