• 1
    Buitendijk S, Zeitlin J, Cuttini M, Langhoff-Roos J, Bottu J. Indicators of fetal and infant health outcomes. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2003; 111(Suppl 1): S6677.
  • 2
    Bhutta AT, Cleves MA, Casey PH, Cradock MM, Anand KJ. Cognitive and behavioral outcomes of school-aged children who were born preterm: a meta-analysis. JAMA 2002; 288: 72837.
  • 3
    Krajewski K, Schneider W. Exploring the impact of phonological awarness, visual-spatial working memory, and preschool quantity-number competencies on mathematics achievement in elementary school: findings from a 3-year longitudinal study. J Exp Child Psychol 2009; 103: 51631.
  • 4
    Jordan NC, Kaplan D, Ramineni C, Locuniak MN. Early math matters: kindergarten number competence and later mathematics outcomes. Dev Psychol 2009; 45: 85067.
  • 5
    Wood NS, Costeloe K, Gibson AT, Hennessy EM, Marlow N, Wilkinson AR; EPICure study Group. The EPICure study: associations and antecedents of neurological and developmental disability at 30 months of age following extremely preterm birth. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2005; 90: F13440.
  • 6
    Bell MJ, Ternberg JL, Feigin RD, Keating JP, Marshall R, Barton L, et al. Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Therapeutic decisions based upon clinical staging. Ann Surg 1978; 187: 17.
  • 7
    Papile LA, Burstein J, Burstein R, Koffler H. Incidence and evolution of subependymal and intraventricular hemorrhage: a study of infants with birth weights less than 1500 gm. J Pediatr 1978; 92: 52934.
  • 8
    Alexander GR, Himes JH, Kaufman RB, Mor J, Kogan M. A United States national reference for fetal growth. Obstet Gynecol 1996; 87: 1638.
  • 9
    Ricken G, Fritz A, Schuck KD, Preuß U. (Hrsg.). (2007). HAWIVA®-III, Hannover-Wechsler-Intelligenztest für das Vorschulalter-III. Manual zur Durchführung und Auswertung. Verlag Hans Huber 2007, Göttingen, Deutschland.
  • 10
    Snijders JT, Snijders-Oomen N. Snijders-Oomen Non-verbale Intelligence Scale, S.O.N. 2 ½-7. HD Tjeenk Willink, 1976, Groningen, Holland.
  • 11
    Kaufmann L, Nuerk H-C, Graf M, Krinzinger H, Delazer M, Willmes K. TEDI-MATH-Test zur Erfassung numerisch-rechnerischer Fertigkeiten vom Kindergarten bis zur 3. Klasse. Bern, Verlag Hans Huber 2009, Bern Schweiz.
  • 12
    Geary DC, Hamson CO, Hoard MK. Numerical and arithmetical cognition: a longitudinal study of process and concept deficits in children with learning disability. J Exp Child Psychol 2000; 77: 23663.
  • 13
    Johnson S, Hennessy E, Smith R, Trikic R, Wolke D, Marlow N. Academic attainment and special educational needs in extremely preterm children at 11 years of age: the EPICure study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2009; 94: F2839.
  • 14
    Marlow N, Wolke D, Bracewell MA, Samara M; EPICure Study Group. Neurologic and developmental disability at six years of age after extremely preterm birth. N Engl J Med 2005; 352: 919.
  • 15
    Hack M, Taylor HG, Drotar D, Schluchter M, Cartar L, Andreias L, et al. Chronic conditions, functional limitations, and special health care needs of school-aged children born with extremely low-birth-weight in the 1990s. JAMA 2005; 294: 31825.
  • 16
    Lind A, Korkman M, Lehtonen L, Lapinleimu H, Parkkola R, Matomäki J, et al. Cognitive and neuropsychological outcomes at 5 years of age in preterm children born in the 2000s. Dev Med Child Neurol 2011; 53: 25662.
  • 17
    Anderson P, Doyle LW. Neurovbehavioral outcomes of school-age children born extremely low birth weight or very preterm in the 1990s. JAMA 2003; 289: 326472.
  • 18
    Wolke D, Samara M, Bracewell M, Marlow N; EPICure Study Group. Specific language difficulties and school achievement in children born at 25 weeks of gestation or less. J Pediatr 2008; 152: 25662.
  • 19
    Aarnoudse-Moens CS, Oosterlaan J, Duivenvoorden HJ, van Goudoever JB, Weisglas-Kuperus N. Development of preschool and academic skills in children born very preterm. J Pediatr 2011; 158: 516.
  • 20
    Peterson BS, Vohr B, Staib LH, Cannistraci CJ, Dolberg A, Schneider KC, et al. Regional brain volume abnormalities and longterm cognitive outcome in preterm infants. JAMA 2000; 284: 193947.
  • 21
    Kaufmann L, Wood G, Rubinsten O, Henrik A. Meta-analysis of developmental fMRI studies investigatin typical and atypical trajectories of number processing and calculation. Dev Neuropsychol 2011; 36: 76387.
  • 22
    Kaufmann L, Vogel SE, Starke M, Wood G. Developmental dyscalculia: compensatory mechanisms in left intraparietal regions in response to nonsymbolic magnitudes. Behav Brain Funct 2009; 5: 35.
  • 23
    Kucian K, Loenneker T, Dietrich T, Dosch M, Martin E, von Aster M. Impaired neuronal networks for approximate calculation in dyscalculic children: a functional MRI study. Behav Brain Funct 2006; 2: 31.
  • 24
    Bhutta AT, Anand KJS. Abnormal cognition and behavior in preterm neonates linked to smaller brain volumes. Trends Neurosci 2001; 24: 12932.
  • 25
    Ernst M, Moolchan ET, Robinson ML. Behavioral and neural consequences of prenatal exposure to nicotine. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001; 40: 63041.
  • 26
    Kiechl-Kohlendorfer U, Ralser E, Pupp Peglow U, Reiter G, Griesmaier E, Trawöger R. Smoking in pregnancy: a risk factor for adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants? Acta Paediatr 2010; 99: 10169.
  • 27
    Frydman M. The smoking addiction of pregnant women and the consequences on their offspring's intellectual development. J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol 1996; 15: 16972.
  • 28
    Mortensen EL, Michaelsen KF, Sanders SA, Reinisch JM. A dose-response relationship between maternal smoking during late pregnancy and adult intelligence in male offspring. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 2005; 19: 411.
  • 29
    Lambe M, Hultman C, Torrang A, MacCabe J, Cnatttingius S. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and school performance at age 15. Epidemiology 2006; 17: 52430.
  • 30
    Larroque B. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke and cognitive development: epidemiology studies. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod 2003; 32(Suppl 1): S239.