• Management;
  • Prophylaxis;
  • Renal scars;
  • Surgical treatment;
  • Vesicoureteral reflux


The clinical management of vesicoureteric reflux includes observational, medical and surgical procedures. The choice of management is often a joint decision made between the paediatric nephrologist and urologist. The use of prophylactic antibiotics has become increasingly debated. In recent years, the surgical treatment of reflux (including endoscopic intervention or ureteral reimplantation) has mainly been limited to cases of high-grade reflux. There are several important risk factors that influence the final outcome which need to be identified and treated. The aim of reflux management is no longer to treat imperatively, but rather to avoid renal damage. It is perhaps time to revise the classic saying ‘diagnosed reflux – treated reflux’ with a new objective ‘diagnosed reflux – evaluated reflux’.


The management and follow-up of childhood reflux is a joint decision between the paediatric urologist and nephrologist and should be decided on a case-by-case basis.