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Evaluation of clinical characteristics of Kawasaki syndrome and risk factors for coronary artery abnormalities among children in Denmark

Authors

  • Amy Patel,

    Corresponding author
    1. University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
    • Correspondence

      Amy Patel, MD, Department of Surgery, Hillerød Hospital, Hillerød, Denmark

      Tel: +0045 27203267 |

      Email: amygronholt@gmail.com

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  • Robert C Holman,

    1. Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • Laura S Callinan,

    1. Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • Nandini Sreenivasan,

    1. Department of Emergency Medicine, Køge Hospital, Køge, Denmark
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  • Lawrence B Schonberger,

    1. Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA, USA
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  • Thea K Fischer,

    1. Department of Virology, Statens Serum Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark
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  • Ermias D Belay

    1. Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Atlanta, GA, USA
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Abstract

Aim

To examine clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of Kawasaki syndrome patients in Denmark.

Methods

A retrospective chart review of hospitalization records for children <15 years of age with a Kawasaki syndrome discharge diagnosis identified through the Danish National Patient Registry during 1994 through June 2008 was conducted.

Results

A total of 284 cases <15 years of age were identified as Kawasaki syndrome (n = 279) and atypical Kawasaki syndrome (n = 5); 70.4% were <5 years of age and 64.4% were male. Most patients (91.5%; 258/282) were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin and 74.6% of these patients (191/256) received intravenous immunoglobulin before the 10th day of illness. A total of 37 (13.3%) Kawasaki syndrome patients were diagnosed with coronary artery abnormalities. Not receiving intravenous immunoglobulin treatment before the 10th day of illness, young age and male sex were significantly associated with the development of coronary artery abnormalities.

Conclusions

In Denmark, more than one in 10 children with Kawasaki syndrome develop coronary artery abnormalities. Physicians should increase their index of suspicion for early diagnosis and treatment of Kawasaki syndrome among patients susceptible to increased risk of coronary artery abnormalities, particularly in infants who may have a more atypical presentation of the illness.

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