Differential developmental programming by early protein restriction of rat skeletal muscle according to its fibre-type composition
Article first published online: 11 MAR 2013
Acta Physiologica © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society
Special Issue: Metabolic Programming
Volume 210, Issue 1, pages 70–83, January 2014
How to Cite
da Silva Aragão, R., Guzmán-Quevedo, O., Pérez-García, G., Toscano, A. E., Gois Leandro, C., Manhães-de-Castro, R. and Bolaños-Jiménez, F. (2014), Differential developmental programming by early protein restriction of rat skeletal muscle according to its fibre-type composition. Acta Physiologica, 210: 70–83. doi: 10.1111/apha.12073
- Issue published online: 13 DEC 2013
- Article first published online: 11 MAR 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 30 JAN 2013 07:20AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 25 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 29 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 13 NOV 2012
- Manuscript Received: 5 OCT 2012
- CAPES-COFECUB. Grant Number: 657/09
- developmental programming;
- skeletal muscle
Differences in fibre-type composition of skeletal muscle have been associated with obesity and insulin resistance. As a poor nutrient environment early in life is a predisposing factor for the development of obesity and related metabolic diseases at adulthood, this study aimed at determining the long-term consequences of maternal undernutrition on the structural and metabolic properties of two skeletal muscles characterized by their different fibre-type composition and metabolic properties.
The fibre-type composition and enzymatic activities of hexokinase (HK), beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) and citrate synthase (CS) were measured in soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from adult rats born to dams fed a control (17% protein) or a low-protein [8% protein (PR)] diet throughout pregnancy and lactation. In addition, the expression levels of several genes regulating glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis were determined by real-time PCR.
Protein rats exhibited enhanced density of type II fibres along with decreased rate of fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis in soleus but not EDL. Malnourished rats exhibited also a different gene expression profile in soleus and EDL. Altogether, these alterations correspond to a state of energy deficiency and are present in animals which do not show yet any sign of obesity or glucose intolerance.
We conclude that maternal protein restriction alters in the long term the structural and enzymatic properties of offspring skeletal muscle in a fibre-type-dependent manner. These alterations might have a causative role in the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders later in life.