Significance of COX-2 and VEGF expression in histopathologic grading and invasiveness of meningiomas



Meningiomas are slow-growing neoplasms that recur locally. Their morphologic grading does not always correlate with patient outcome. We evaluated the status of several immunohistochemical markers with histopathologic parameters in various grades of meningioma.Eighty-eight meningioma specimens were examined immunohistochemically to determine the status of Ki-67, cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and bcl-2. Several clinical and pathological parameters were investigated.Forty-nine Grade I, 33 Grade II, and 6 Grade III meningiomas were observed. VEGF and Ki-67 expression was correlated with higher tumor grade. The association between grade and other immunohistochemical markers expression was not significant. A correlation was observed between COX-2 expression and invasiveness to the brain or adjacent soft tissue. Tumor recurrence was correlated with brain or adjacent soft tissue invasion. We also observed a relationship between VEGF level and COX-2 expression, and they were both correlated with necrosis.Immunohistochemical evaluation of VEGF, COX-2, and Ki-67 expression can provide information regarding the behavior of meningiomas, particularly for cases in which histological grading is not straightforward.