• 1
    Keane J, Gershon S, Braun MS, et al. Tuberculosis associated with infliximab, a tumor necrosis factor alpha neutralizing agent. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1098104.
  • 2
    Marehbian J, Arrighi MH, Hass S, Tian H, Sandborn WJ, et al. Adverse events associated with common therapy regimens for moderate –to-severe Crohn's disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2009; 104: 252433.
  • 3
    Tubach F, Salmon D, Ravaud P, et al. Risk of tuberculosis is higher with anti-tumor necrosis factor monoclonal antibody therapy than soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor therapy. Arthritis Rheum 2009; 60: 188494.
  • 4
    Dixon WG, Hyrich KL, Watson KD, Lunt M, Galloway J, Ustianowski A. Drug-specific risk of tuberculosis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with anti-TNF therapy: results from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register (BSRBR). Ann Rheum Dis 2010; 69: 5228.
  • 5
    Rahier JF, Ben-Horin S, Chowers Y, et al. European evidence-based consensus on the prevention, diagnosis and management of opportunistic infections in inflammatory bowel disease. J Crohns Colitis 2009; 3: 4791.
  • 6
    Rutgeers P, Van Assche G, Vermiere S. Review article: infliximab therapy for inflammatory bowel disease – seven years on. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2006; 23: 45163.
  • 7
    Data on file, Abbott, Analysis of Rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials 4/2006. Abbott, Chicago, IL, USA.
  • 8
    Ingram PR, Fisher DA, Wilder-Smith A. Review: latent tuberculosis infection in travelers: is there a role for Screening using interferon-gamma release assays? J Travel Med 2009; 16: 3526.
  • 9
    Cobelens F, Van Deutekom H, Draayer-Jansen I, et al. Risk of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in travellers to areas of high tuberculosis endemicity. Lancet 2000; 356: 4615.
  • 10
    Cobelens F, Van Deutekom H, Draayer-Jansen I, et al. Association of tuberculin sensitivity in Dutch adults with history of travel to areas with a high incidence tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis 2001; 33: 3004.
  • 11
    Leder K, Tong S, Weld L, et al. Illness in travelers visiting friends and relatives: a review of the GeoSentinel surveillance network. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 43: 118593.
  • 12
    Diel R, Golleti D, Ferrara G, et al. Interferon-y Release assays for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J 2011; 37: 8899.
  • 13
    Qumseya BJ, Ananthakrishnan AN, Skaros S, et al. Quantiferon TB Gold Testing for tuberculosis screening in an inflammatory bowel disease cohort in United States. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011; 17: 7683.
  • 14
    Papay P, Eser A, Winkler S, et al. Factors impacting the results of interferon-γ release assay in screening for latent tuberculosis in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011; 17: 8490.
  • 15
    Schoepfer AM, Flogerzi B, Falleger S, et al. Comparison of interferon-gamma release assay versus tuberculin skin test for tuberculosis screening in inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2008; 103: 2799806.
    Direct Link:
  • 16
    Bélard R, Semb S, Ruhwald M, et al. Prednisolone treatment affects the performance of the QuantiFERON Gold In-tube test and the tuberculin skin test in patients with autoimmune disorders screened for latent tuberculosis infection. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011; 17: 23409.
  • 17
    Van Assche G, Dignass A, Panes J, et al. The second European evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease: definitions and diagnosis. J Crohns Colitis 2010; 4: 727.
  • 18
    Dignass A, Van Assche G, Lindsay JO, et al. The second European evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease: current management. J Crohns Colitis 2010; 4: 2862.
  • 19
    Silverberg MS, Satsangi J, Ahmad T, et al. Toward an integrated clinical, molecular, and serological classification of inflammatory bowel disease: report of a Working Party of the 2005 Montreal World Congress of Gastroenterology. Can J Gastroenterol 2005; 19(Suppl. A): 536.
  • 20
    Oefferlbauer-Ernst A, Miehsler W, Eckmüller O, et al. Impact of interobserver disagreement on phenotype-genotype associations in Crohn's disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007; 13: 15663.
  • 21
    Van Assche G, Dignass A, Reinisch W, et al. The second European evidence-based consensus on the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease: special situations. J Crohns Colitis 2010; 4: 63101.
  • 22
    Lee E, Holzman RS. Evolution and current use of the tuberculin test. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 34: 36570.
  • 23
    American Thoracic Society. Targeted tuberculin testing. And treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2000; 161: S22147.
  • 24
    Jasmer RM, Nahid P, Hopewell PC. Latent tuberculosis infection. N Engl J Med 2002; 347: 18606.
  • 25
    Van Zyl-Smit RN, Zwerling A, Dheda K, et al. Within-Subject variability of Interferon-g Assay results for tuberculosis and boosting effect of tuberculin skin testing: a systematic review. PLoS ONE 2009; 4: e8517.
  • 26
    Schablon A, Harling M, Diel R, Ringshausen FC, Torres Costa J, Nienhaus A. Serial testing with interferon-y release assay in German healthcare workers. GMS Krankenhhyg Interdiszip 2010; 5: Doc05.
  • 27
    Chen DY, Shen GH, Hsieh TY, Hsieh CW, Lan JL. Effectiveness of the combination of a whole-blood interferon-gamma assay and the tuberculin skin test in detecting latent tuberculosis infection in rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving adalimumab therapy. Arthritis Rheum 2008; 59: 8006.
  • 28
    Bermejo F, Algaba A, Chapparo M, et al. How frequent are conversions of tuberculosis screening tests among inflammatory bowel disease patients under anti-TNF treatment? J Crohns Colitis 2012; 6(Suppl. 1): S76.
  • 29
    Lee SW, Lee CT, Yim JJ. Serial interferon-gamma release assays during treatment of active tuberculosis in young adults. BMC Infect Dis 2010; 10: 300.
  • 30
    Adetifa IM, Ota MO, Walther B, et al. Decay kinetics of an interferon gamma release assay with anti-tuberculosis therapy in newly diagnosed tuberculosis cases. PLoS ONE 2010; 5: e12502.
  • 31
    Chee CB, KhinMar KW, Gan SH, et al. Tuberculosis treatment effect on T-cell interferon-gamma responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific antigens. Eur Respir J 2010; 36: 35561.
  • 32
    Wilkinson KA, Kon OM, Newton SM, et al. Effect of treatment of latent tuberculosis infection on the T cell response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigen. J Infect Dis 2006; 193: 3549.
  • 33
    Pai M, Joshi R, Dogra S, et al. Persistently elevated T cell interferon-gamma responses after treatment for latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in India: a preliminary report. J Occup Med Toxicol 2006; 1: 7.
  • 34
    Dyrhol-Riise AM, Gran G, Wentzel-Larsen T, Blomberg B, Haanshuus CG, Mørkve O. Diagnosis and follow-up of treatment of latent tuberculosis: the utility of Quantiferon TB Gold in tube assay in outpatients from tuberculosis low-endemic country. BMC Infect Dis 2010; 10: 57.
  • 35
    Shahidi N, Fu YT, Qian H, Bressler B. Performance of interferon-gamma release assays in patients with inflammatory bowel disase: a systematic revie and Meta-analysis. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2012; doi: 10.1002/ibd.22901 [Epub ahead of print].
  • 36
    Papay P, Eser A, Winkler S, et al. Predictors of indeterminate IFN-γ release assay in screening for latent TB in inflammatory bowel diseses. Eur J Clin Invest 2011; 41: 10716.
  • 37
    Helwig U, Müller M, Hedderich J, Schreiber S. Corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy influence the results of QuantiFERON TB Gold testing in inflammatory bowel disease patients. J Crohns Colitis 2012; 6: 41924.
  • 38
    Diel R, Loddenkemper R, Meywald-Walter K, Niemann S, Nienhaus A. Predictive value of a whole-blood IFN-γ assay for the development of active tuberculosis disease after recent infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2008; 177: 116470.
  • 39
    Aichelburg MC, Rieger A, Breitenecker F, et al. Detection and prediction of active tuberculosis disease by whole-blood interferon-γ release assay in HIV-1-infected individuals. Clin Infect Dis 2009; 48: 5462.
  • 40
    Colombel JF, Sandborn WJ, Reinisch W, et al. Infliximab, azathioprine, or combination therapy for Crohn's disease. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 138395.
  • 41
    Rutgeerts P, Sandborn WJ, Feagan BG, et al. Infliximab for induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 246276.
  • 42
    Colombel JF, Sandborn WJ, Rutgeerts P, et al. Adalimumab for maintenance of clinical response and remission in patients with Crohn's disease: the CHARM trial. Gastroenterology 2007; 132: 5265.
  • 43
    Sandborn WJ, van Assche G, Reinisch W, et al. Adalimumab induces and maintains clinical remission in patients with moderate-to severe ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 2012; 142: 25765.
  • 44
    Epstein D, Watermeyer G, Kirsch R. Review article: the diagnosis and management of Crohn's disease in populations with high-risk rates for tuberculosis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2007; 25: 137388.
  • 45
    Theis VS, Rhodes JM. Review article: minimizing tuberculosis during anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 27: 1930.