• 1
    Torri A, Toda G. Management of irritable bowel syndrome. Internal Med 2004; 43: 3539.
  • 2
    Mayer EA. Irritable Bowel Syndrome. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 16929.
  • 3
    Hutchings HA, Wareham K, Baxter JN, et al. A randomised, cross-over, placebo-controlled study of aloe vera in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: effects on patient quality of life. ISRN Gastroenterol 2011; 2011: 206103.
  • 4
    Brandt LJ, Chey WD, Foxx-Orenstein AE, et al. An evidence-based position statement on the management of irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2009; 104(Suppl. 1): S135.
  • 5
    Tillisch K, Labus J, Nam B, et al. Neurokinin-1-receptor antagonism decreases anxiety and emotional arousal circuit response to noxious visceral distension in women with irritable bowel syndrome: a pilot study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2012; 35: 3607.
  • 6
    Koloski N, Boyce P, Jones M, Talley N. What level of IBS symptoms drives impairment in health-related quality of life in community subjects with irritable bowel syndrome? Qual Life Res 2012; 21: 82936.
  • 7
    Tillisch K, Mayer EA, Labus J, Stains J, Chang L, Naliboff BD. Sex specific alterations in autonomic function among patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Gut 2005; 54: 1396401.
  • 8
    Fass R, Fullerton S, Tung S, Mayer EA. Sleep disturbances in clinic patients with functional bowel disorders. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 11952000.
    Direct Link:
  • 9
    Mayer EA, Tillisch K. The brain-gut axis in abdominal pain syndromes. Annu Rev Med 2011; 62: 38196.
  • 10
    Wiklund IK, Fullerton S, Hawkey CJ, et al. An irritable bowel syndrome-specific symptom questionnaire: development and validation. Scand J Gastroenterol 2003; 38: 94754.
  • 11
    Spiegel BM, Gralnek IM, Bolus R, et al. Clinical determinants of health-related quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Arch Intern Med 2004; 164: 177380.
  • 12
    Gralnek IM, Hays RD, Kilbourne A, Naliboff B, Mayer EA. The impact of irritable bowel syndrome on health-related quality of life. Gastroenterology 2000; 119: 65460.
  • 13
    Clave P. Treatment of IBS-D with 5-HT3 receptor antagonists vs spasmolytic agents: similar therapeutical effects from heterogeneous pharmacological targets. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2011; 23: 10515.
  • 14
    Sands BE. The placebo response rate in irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis 2009; 27: 6875.
  • 15
    Saad RJ, Chey WD. Recent developments in the therapy of irritable bowel syndrome. Expert Opin Investig Drugs 2008; 17: 11730.
  • 16
    Chey WD, Maneerattaporn M, Saad R. Pharmacologic and complementary and alternative medicine therapies for irritable bowel syndrome. Gut Liver 2011; 5: 25366.
  • 17
    McFarland LV. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea and the treatment of Clostridium difficile disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2006; 101: 81222.
  • 18
    Spiller R. Review article: probiotics and prebiotics in irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2008; 28: 38596.
  • 19
    Shen YH, Nahas R. Complementary and alternative medicine for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Can Fam Physician 2009; 55: 1438.
  • 20
    Hefner J, Rilk A, Herbert BM, Zipfel S, Enck P, Martens U. Hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome–a systematic review. Z Gastroenterol 2009; 47: 11539.
  • 21
    Gaylord SA, Whitehead WE, Coble RS, et al. Mindfulness for irritable bowel syndrome: protocol development for a controlled clinical trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2009; 9: 24.
  • 22
    Webb AN, Kukuruzovic RH, Catto-Smith AG, Sawyer SM. Hypnotherapy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007; 4: CD005110.
  • 23
    Golden WL. Cognitive-behavioral hypnotherapy in the treatment of irritable-bowel-syndrome-induced agoraphobia. Int J Clin Exp Hypn 2007; 55: 13146.
  • 24
    Whorwell PJ. Behavioral therapy for IBS. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol 2009; 6: 1489.
  • 25
    Wald A, Rakel D. Behavioral and complementary approaches for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Nutr Clin Pract 2008; 23: 28492.
  • 26
    Ringström G, Störsrud S, Lundqvist S, Westman B, Simrén M. Development of an educational intervention for patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): a pilot study. BMC Gastroenterol 2009; 9: 10.
  • 27
    Ljotsson B, Hedman E, Andersson E, et al. Internet-Delivered Exposure-Based Treatment vs. Stress Management for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: a Randomized Trial. Am J Gastroenterol 2011; 106: 148191.
  • 28
    Lackner JM, McCracken LM. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Functional Pain Disorders. Functional Pain Syndromes: Presentation and Pathophysiology. Seattle, WA: IASP Press, 2009; 491509.
  • 29
    Lackner JM, Jaccard J, Krasner SS, Katz LA, Gudleski GD, Holroyd K. Self-administered cognitive behavior therapy for moderate to severe irritable bowel syndrome: clinical efficacy, tolerability, feasibility. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008; 6: 899906.
  • 30
    Ringström G, Störsrud S, Posserud I, Lundqvist S, Westman B, Simrén M. Structured patient education is superior to written information in the management of patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 22: 4208.
  • 31
    Heitkemper MM, Jarrett ME, Levy RL, et al. Self-management for women with irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2004; 2: 58596.
  • 32
    Saito YA, Prather CM, Van Dyke CT, Fett S, Zinsmeister AR, Locke GR. Effects of multidisciplinary education on outcomes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004; 2: 57684.
  • 33
    Heymann-Monnikes I, Arnold R, Florin I, Herda C, Melfsen S, Monnikes H. The combination of medical treatment plus multicomponent behavioral therapy is superior to medical treatment alone in the therapy of irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 98194.
  • 34
    Lackner JM, Gudleski GD, Keefer L, Krasner SS, Powell C, Katz LA. Rapid response to cognitive behavior therapy predicts treatment outcome in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 8: 42632.
  • 35
    Thompson WG, Longstreth GF, Drossman DA, Heaton KW, Irvine EJ, Müller-Lissner SA. Functional bowel disorders and functional abdominal pain. Gut 1999; 45(Suppl. 2): II437.
  • 36
    Labus JS, Bolus R, Chang L, et al. The Visceral Sensitivity Index: development and validation of a gastrointestinal symptom-specific anxiety scale. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2004; 20: 8997.
  • 37
    Hahn BA, Kirchdoerfer LJ, Fullerton S, Mayer E. Evaluation of a new quality of life questionnaire for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1997; 11: 54752.
  • 38
    Bijkerk CJ, de Wit NJ, Muris JW, Jones RH, Knottnerus JA, Hoes AW. Outcome measures in irritable bowel syndrome: comparison of psychometric and methodological characteristics. Am J Gastroenterol 2003; 98: 1227.
    Direct Link:
  • 39
    Adams RB, Franklin RG, Rule NO, et al. Culture, gaze and the neural processing of fear expressions. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2010; 5: 3408.
  • 40
    Zigmond AS, Snaith RP. The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1983; 67: 36170.
  • 41
    Rosenstiel AK, Keefe FJ. The use of coping strategies in chronic low back pain patients: relationship to patient characteristics and current adjustment. Pain 1983; 17: 3344.
  • 42
    Kohl F. Progressive muscle relaxation according to E. Jacobson. A modern relaxation technique. Med Monatsschr Pharm 2002; 25: 7787.
  • 43
    Salt WB. IBS and the Mind-Body Brain-Gut Connection. Columbus: Parkview Publishing, 1997.
  • 44
    Holroyd KA, Labus JS, Carlson B. Moderation and mediation in the psychological and drug treatment of chronic tension-type headache: the role of disorder severity and psychiatric comorbidity. Pain 2009; 143: 21322.
  • 45
    Hayes AF. Beyond Baron and Kenny: statistical mediation analysis in the new millennium. Commun Monogr 2009; 76: 40820.
  • 46
    Tein JY, Sandler IN, MacKinnon DP, Wolchik SA. How did it work? Who did it work for? Mediation in the context of a moderated prevention effect for children of divorce. J Consult Clin Psychol 2004; 72: 61724.
  • 47
    Preacher KJ, Rucker DD, Hayes AF. Addressing moderated mediation hypotheses: theory, methods, and prescriptions. Multivar Behav Res 2007; 42: 185227.
  • 48
    Jarrett ME, Cain KC, Burr RL, Hertig VL, Rosen SN, Heitkemper MM. Comprehensive self-management for irritable bowel syndrome: randomized trial of in-person vs. combined in-person and telephone sessions. Am J Gastroenterol 2009; 104: 300414.
  • 49
    Hansen WB, McNeal RB Jr. The law of maximum expected potential effect: constraints placed on program effectiveness by mediator relationships. Health Educ Res 1996; 11: 5017.
  • 50
    Moss-Morris R, McAlpine L, Didsbury LP, Spence MJ. A randomized controlled trial of a cognitive behavioural therapy-based self-management intervention for irritable bowel syndrome in primary care. Psychol Med 2010; 40: 8594.
  • 51
    Craske MG, Wolitzky-Taylor KB, Labus J, et al. A cognitive-behavioral treatmnet for irritable bowel syndrome using interoceptive exposure to visceral sensations. Behav Res Ther 2011; 49: 41321.