SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Christensen K, Doblhammer G, Rau R, Vaupel JW. Ageing populations: the challenges ahead. Lancet 2009; 374: 1196208.
  • 2
    Wells CL, Maddaus MA, Jechorek RP, Simmons RL. Role of intestinal anaerobic bacteria in colonization resistance. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1988; 7: 10713.
  • 3
    Vollaard EJ, Clasener HA. Colonization resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1994; 38: 40914.
  • 4
    Woodmansey EJ, McMurdo MET, Macfarlane GT, Macfarlane S. Comparison of compositions and metabolic activities of fecal microbiotas in young adults and in antibiotic-treated and non-antibiotic treated elderly subjects. Appl Environ Microbiol 2004; 70: 611322.
  • 5
    Bartosch S, Woodmansey EJ, Paterson JCM, McMurdo MET, Macfarlane GT. Microbiological effects of consuming a synbiotic containing Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, and oligofructose in elderly persons, determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and counting of viable bacteria. Clin Infect Dis 2005; 40: 2837.
  • 6
    Lesourd BM, Lainsey C, Salvatore R, Moulias R. Decreased maturation of T-cell populations in the healthy elderly: Influence of nutritional factors on the appearance of double negative CD4-, CD8-, CD2 +  cells. Arch Gerontol Geriatr 1994; 19: 13954.
  • 7
    Claesson MJ, Jeffery IB, Conde S, et al. Gut microbiota composition correlates with diet and health in the elderly. Nature 2012; 488: 17884.
  • 8
    Russell RM. Changes in gastrointestinal function attributed to aging. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 55: S12037.
  • 9
    Orr WC, Chen CL. Aging and neural control of the GI tract: IV. Clinical and physiological aspects of gastrointestinal motility and aging. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2002; 283: G122631.
  • 10
    Kleessen B, Sykura B, Zunft HJ, Blaut M. Effects of inulin and lactose on fecal microflora, microbial activity, and bowel habit in elderly constipated persons. Am J Clin Nutr 1997; 65: 1397402.
  • 11
    Samsom M, Coremans G. Motility disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal aspects. In: Van Lanschott JJB, Gouma DJ, Tytgat GNJ, et al., eds. Integrated Medical and Surgical Gastroenterology. Ludwigsburg: Druckhaus Gorz, 2004; 35665.
  • 12
    Gorbach SL, Nahas L, Lerner PI, Weinstein L. Studies of intestinal microflora. I. Effects of diet, age, and periodic sampling on numbers of fecal microorganisms in man. Gastroenterology 1967; 53: 84555.
  • 13
    Hopkins MJ, Sharp R, Macfarlane GT. Age and disease related changes in intestinal bacterial populations assessed by cell culture, 16S rRNA abundance, and community cellular fatty acid profiles. Gut 2001; 48: 198205.
  • 14
    Mariat D, Firmesse O, Levenez F, et al. The Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio of the human microbiota changes with age. BMC Microbiol 2009; 9: 1238.
  • 15
    Mueller S, Saunier K, Hanisch C, et al. Differences in fecal microbiota in different European study populations in relation to age, gender, and country: a cross-sectional study. Appl Environ Microbiol 2006; 72: 102733.
  • 16
    Hopkins MJ, Macfarlane GT. Changes in predominant bacterial populations in human faeces with age and with Clostridium difficile infection. J Med Microbiol 2002; 51: 44854.
  • 17
    Gavini F, Cayuela C, Antoine JM, et al. Differences in the spatial distribution of bifidobacterial and enterobacterial species in human faecal microflora of three different (children, adults, elderly) age groups. Microb Ecol Health Dis 2001; 13: 405.
  • 18
    Bruunsgaard H, Pedersen BK. Age-related inflammatory cytokines and disease. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2003; 23: 1539.
  • 19
    Chen WH, Kozlovsky BF, Effros RB, Grubeck-Loebenstein B, Edelman R, Sztein MB. Vaccination in the elderly: an immunological perspective. Trends Immunol 2009; 30: 3519.
  • 20
    Saavedra JM, Bauman NA, Oung I, Perman JA, Yolken RH. Feeding of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus to infants in hospital for prevention of diarrhoea and shedding of rotavirus. Lancet 1994; 344: 10469.
  • 21
    Kirjavainen PV, Arvola T, Salminen SJ, Isolaurie E. Aberrant composition of gut microbiota of allergic infants: a target of bifidobacterial therapy at weaning? Gut 2002; 51: 515.
  • 22
    Reddy BS, Rivenson A. Inhibitory effect of Bifidobacterium longum on colon, mammary, and liver carcinogenesis induced by 2-amino-3-methylimidazo [4,5-f] quinoline, a food mutagen. Cancer Res 1993; 53: 39148.
  • 23
    Macfarlane GT, Steed H, Macfarlane S. Bacterial metabolism and health-related effects of galacto-oligosaccharides and other prebiotics. J Appl Microbiol 2008; 104: 30544.
  • 24
    Macfarlane GT, Cummings JH. Probiotics and prebiotics: can we benefit health through regulation of the activities of intestinal bacteria? BMJ 1999; 318: 9991003.
  • 25
    Amhed M, Prased J, Gill H, Stevenson L, Gopal P. Impact of consumption of different levels of Bifidobacterium lactis HN019 on the intestinal microflora of elderly human subjects. J Nutr Health Aging 2007; 11: 2631.
  • 26
    Guigoz Y, Rochat F, Perruisseau-Carrier G, Rochat F, Schiffrin EJ. Effects of oligosaccharide on the fecal flora and non-specific immune system in elderly people. Nutr Res 2002; 22: 1325.
  • 27
    Bouhnik Y, Achour L, Paineau D, Riottot M, Attar A, Bornet F. Four-week short chain fructo-oligosaccharides ingestion leads to increasing fecal bifidobacteria and cholesterol excretion in healthy elderly volunteers. Nutr J 2007; 6: 42.
  • 28
    Vulevic J, Drakoularakou A, Yaqoob P, Tzortzis G, Gibson GR. Modulation of the fecal microflora profile and immune function by a novel trans-galactooligosaccharide mixture (B-GOS) in healthy elderly volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 2008; 88: 143846.
  • 29
    Furrie E, Macfarlane S, Kennedy A, et al. Synbiotic therapy (Bifidobacterium longum/Synergy 1™ initiates resolution of inflammation in patients with active ulcerative colitis: a randomised controlled pilot trial. Gut 2005; 54: 2429.
  • 30
    Steed H, Macfarlane GT, Blackett KL, et al. Clinical trial: the microbiological and immunological effects of synbiotic consumption – a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study in active Crohn's disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010; 32: 87283.
  • 31
    Daniel WW. Biostatistics: A Foundation for Analysis in the Health Sciences. 4th ed. New York: John Wiley and Sons Inc, 1987.
  • 32
    Cummings JH, Christie S, Cole TJ. A study of fructo oligosaccharides in the prevention of travellers' diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2001; 15: 113945.
  • 33
    Child MW, Kennedy A, Walker AW, Bahrami B, Macfarlane S, Macfarlane GT. Studies on the effect of system retention time on bacterial populations colonizing a three-stage continuous culture model of the human large gut using FISH techniques. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2006; 55: 299310.
  • 34
    Takada T, Matsumoto K, Nomoto K. Development of multi-color FISH method for analysis of seven Bifidobacterium species in human feces. J Microbiol Methods 2004; 58: 41321.
  • 35
    De Groote D, Zangerle PF, Gevaert Y, et al. Direct stimulation of cytokines (IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6, IFN-gamma, and GM-CSF) in whole blood. Comparison with isolated PBMC stimulation. Cytokine 1992; 4: 23948.
  • 36
    Macfarlane S, Steed H, Macfarlane GT. Intestinal bacteria in IBD. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 2009; 46: 2554.
  • 37
    Purchiaroni F, Tortora A, Gabrielli M, et al. The role of the intestinal microbiota and the immune system. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2013; 3: 32333.
  • 38
    Steed H, Macfarlane GT, Macfarlane S. Prebiotics, synbiotics and inflammatory bowel disease. Mol Nutr Food Res 2008; 52: 898905.
  • 39
    Macfarlane GT, Macfarlane S. Fermentation in the human large intestine. Its physiological consequences and the potential role of prebiotics. J Clin Gastroenterol 2011; 45: S1207.
  • 40
    Bartosch S, Fite A, Macfarlane GT, McMurdo MET. Characterization of bacterial communities in feces from healthy elderly volunteers and hospitalized elderly patients by using real time PCR and effects of antibiotic treatment on the fecal microbiota. Appl Environ Microbiol 2004; 70: 357581.
  • 41
    Mäkivuokko H, Tiihonen K, Tynkkynen S, Paulin L, Rautonen N. The effect of age and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on human intestinal microbiota composition. Br J Nutr 2010; 103: 22734.
  • 42
    Rajilic-Stojanovic M, Heilig HG, Molenaar D, et al. Development and application of the human intestinal tract chip, a phylogenetic microarray: analysis of universally conserved phylotypes in the abundant microbiota of young and elderly adults. Environ Microbiol 2009; 11: 173651.
  • 43
    Macfarlane GT, Macfarlane S. Bacteria, colonic fermentation, and gastrointestinal health. J AOAC Int 2012; 95: 5060.
  • 44
    Bocker U, Nebe T, Herweck F, et al. Butyrate modulates intestinal epithelial cell-mediated neutrophil migration. Clin Exp Immunol 2003; 131: 5360.
  • 45
    Biagi E, Nylund L, Candela M, et al. Through ageing, and beyond: gut microbiota and inflammatory status in seniors and centenarians. PLoS ONE 2010; 5: e10667.
  • 46
    Claesson MJ, Cusack S, O'Sullivan O, et al. Composition, variability, and temporal stability of the intestinal microbiota of the elderly. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2011; 108: 458691.
  • 47
    Ramirez-Farias C, Slezak K, Fuller Z, Duncan A, Holtrop G, Louis P. Effect of inulin on the human gut microbiota: stimulation of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Br J Nutr 2009; 101: 54150.
  • 48
    Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JL. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 2006; 444: 10223.
  • 49
    Hippe B, Zweilehner J, Litzt K, Lassl C, Unger F, Haslberger AG. Quantification of butyryl CoA:acetate CoA-transferase genes reveals different butyrate production capacity in individuals according to diet and age. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2011; 316: 1305.
  • 50
    Belenguer A, Duncan SH, Calder AG, et al. Two routes of metabolic cross-feeding between Bifidobacterium adolescentis and butyrate-producing anaerobes from the human gut. Appl Environ Microbiol 2006; 72: 35939.
  • 51
    Duncan SH, Holtrop G, Lobley GE, Calder AG, Stewart CS, FlInt HJ. Contribution of acetate to butyrate formation by human faecal bacteria. Br J Nutr 2004; 91: 91523.
  • 52
    Fukuda S, Toh H, Hase K, et al. Bifidobacteria can protect from enteropathogenic infection through production of acetate. Nature 2011; 469: 5437.
  • 53
    Cakman I, Rohwer J, Schutz RM, Kirchner H, Rink L. Dysregulation between TH1 and TH2 T cell subpopulations in the elderly. Mech Ageing Dev 2006; 87: 197209.
  • 54
    Miles EA, Rees D, Banerjee T, et al. Age-related increases in circulating inflammatory markers in men are independent of BMI, blood pressure and blood lipid concentrations. Atherosclerosis 2008; 196: 298305.
  • 55
    Candore G, Caruso C, Jirillo E, Magrone T, Vasto S. Low grade inflammation as a common pathogenetic denominator in age-related diseases: novel targets for anti-ageing strategies and successful ageing achievement. Curr Pharm Des 2010; 16: 58496.
  • 56
    Chung HY, Cesari M, Anton S, et al. Molecular inflammation: underpinnings of aging and age-related diseases. Ageing Res Rev 2009; 8: 1830.
  • 57
    Winkler P, Ghadimi D, Schrezenmeir J, Raehenbuhl J-P. Molecular and cellular basis of microflora-host interactions. J Nutr 2007; 137: S75672.
  • 58
    Schiffrin EJ, Thomas DR, Kumar VB, et al. Systemic inflammatory markers in older persons: the effect of oral nutritional supplementation with prebiotics. J Nutr Health Aging 2007; 11: 4759.
  • 59
    Mendal MA, Patel P, Asante M, et al. Relation of serum cytokine concentrations to cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease. Heart 1997; 78: 2737.