• 1
    Ley RE, Peterson DA, Gordon JI. Ecological and evolutionary forces shaping microbial diversity in the human intestine. Cell 2006; 124: 83748.
  • 2
    Backhed F, Ley RE, Sonnenburg JL, Peterson DA, Gordon JI. Host-bacterial mutualism in the human intestine. Science 2005; 307: 191520.
  • 3
    Hooper LV, Midtvedt T, Gordon JI. How host-microbial interactions shape the nutrient environment of the mammalian intestine. Annu Rev Nutr 2002; 22: 283307.
  • 4
    Frank DN, St Amand AL, Feldman RA, Boedeker EC, Harpaz N, Pace NR. Molecular-phylogenetic characterization of microbial community imbalances in human inflammatory bowel diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007; 104: 137805.
  • 5
    Backhed F, Ding H, Wang T, et al. The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2004; 101: 1571823.
  • 6
    Frank DN, Robertson CE, Hamm CM, et al. Disease phenotype and genotype are associated with shifts in intestinal-associated microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011; 17: 17984.
  • 7
    Lepage P, Hasler R, Spehlmann ME, et al. Twin study indicates loss of interaction between microbiota and mucosa of patients with ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 2011; 141: 22736.
  • 8
    Ley RE, Backhed F, Turnbaugh P, Lozupone CA, Knight RD, Gordon JI. Obesity alters gut microbial ecology. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005; 102: 110705.
  • 9
    Ley RE, Turnbaugh PJ, Klein S, Gordon JI. Microbial ecology: human gut microbes associated with obesity. Nature 2006; 444: 10223.
  • 10
    Mondot S, Kang S, Furet JP, et al. Highlighting new phylogenetic specificities of Crohn's disease microbiota. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011; 17: 18592.
  • 11
    Brandt LJ, Aroniadis OC, Mellow M, et al. Long-term follow-up of colonoscopic fecal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107: 107987.
  • 12
    Zhang F, Luo W, Shi Y, Fan Z, Ji G. Should we standardize the 1,700-year-old fecal microbiota transplantation? Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107: 1755; author reply 1755–1756.
  • 13
    Eiseman B, Silen W, Bascom GS, Kauvar AJ. Fecal enema as an adjunct in the treatment of pseudomembranous. Surgery 1958; 44: 8549.
  • 14
    Russell G, Kaplan J, Ferraro M, Michelow IC. Fecal bacteriotherapy for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection in a child: a proposed treatment protocol. Pediatrics 2010; 126: e23942.
  • 15
    Landy J, Al-Hassi HO, McLaughlin SD, et al. Review article: faecal transplantation therapy for gastrointestinal disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2011; 34: 40915.
  • 16
    Brandt L, Aroniadis O. Long-term follow-up study of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for ulcerative colitis (UC). Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107: S657.
  • 17
    Borody TJ, Khoruts A. Fecal microbiota transplantation and emerging applications. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012; 9: 8896.
  • 18
    Anderson JL, Edney RJ, Whelan K. Systematic review: faecal microbiota transplantation in the management of inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2012; 36: 50316.
  • 19
    Hopkins MJ, Sharp R, Macfarlane GT. Age and disease related changes in intestinal bacterial populations assessed by cell culture, 16S rRNA abundance, and community cellular fatty acid profiles. Gut 2001; 48: 198205.
  • 20
    Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. Ann Intern Med 2009; 151: W6594.
  • 21
    Stroup DF, Berlin JA, Morton SC, et al. Meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology: a proposal for reporting. Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) group. J Am Med Assoc 2000; 283: 200812.
  • 22
    Manchikanti L, Datta S, Smith HS, Hirsch JA. Evidence-based medicine, systematic reviews, and guidelines in interventional pain management: part 6. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of observational studies. Pain Physician 2009; 12: 81950.
  • 23
    Schwan A, Sjolin S, Trottestam U, Aronsson B. Relapsing clostridium difficile enterocolitis cured by rectal infusion of homologous faeces. Lancet 1983; 2: 845.
  • 24
    Schwan A, Sjolin S, Trottestam U, Aronsson B. Relapsing Clostridium difficile enterocolitis cured by rectal infusion of normal faeces. Scand J Infect Dis 1984; 16: 2115.
  • 25
    Shahinas D, Silverman M, Sittler T, et al. Toward an understanding of changes in diversity associated with fecal microbiome transplantation based on 16S rRNA gene deep sequencing. mBio 2012; 3: e0033812.
  • 26
    Silverman MS, Davis I, Pillai DR. Success of self-administered home fecal transplantation for chronic Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2010; 8: 4713.
  • 27
    Angelberger S, Reinisch W, Makristathis A, et al. Temporal bacterial community dynamics vary among ulcerative colitis patients after faecal microbiota transplantation. J Crohns Colitis 2013; 7: S291.
  • 28
    Angelberger S, Lichtenberger C, Gratzer C, et al. Fecal transplantation in patients with moderately to severely chronic active ulcerative colitis (UC). J Crohns Colitis 2012; 6: S159.
  • 29
    Hamilton MJ, Weingarden AR, Unno T, Khoruts A, Sadowsky MJ. High-throughput DNA sequence analysis reveals stable engraftment of gut microbiota following transplantation of previously frozen fecal bacteria. Gut microbes 2013; 4: 12535.
  • 30
    Hamilton MJ, Weingarden AR, Sadowsky MJ, Khoruts A. Standardized frozen preparation for transplantation of fecal microbiota for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107: 7617.
  • 31
    Mellow M, Kanatzar A. Colonoscopic fecal bacteriotherapy in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection-results and follow-up. Am J Gastroenterol 2010; 105: S135.
  • 32
    Mellow MH, Kanatzar A. Colonoscopic fecal bacteriotherapy in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection–results and follow-up. J Okla State Med Assoc 2011; 104: 8991.
  • 33
    Mellow M, Kanatzar A, Brandt L, et al. Longterm follow-up of colonoscopic Fecal Microbiota Transplant (FMT) for recurrent C. difficile infection (RCDI). Am J Gastroenterol 2011; 106: S14950.
  • 34
    Gustafsson A. S. Lund-Tonnesen. Faecal short-chain fatty acids in patients with antibiotic associated diarrhoea, before and after faecal enema treatment. Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl 1998; 33: 7217.
  • 35
    Gustafsson ABA, Lund-Tønnesen S, Midtvedt T, Norin E. The effect of faecal enema on five microflora-associated characteristics in patients with antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Scand J Gastroenterol 1999; 34: 5806.
  • 36
    Guo B, Harstall C, Louie T, Veldhuyzen van Zanten S, Dieleman LA. Systematic review: faecal transplantation for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2012; 35: 86575.
  • 37
    Van Nood E, Vrieze A, Nieuwdorp M, et al. Duodenal infusion of donor feces for recurrent Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med 2013; 368: 40715.
  • 38
    Wettstein A, Borody T, Leis S, Chongnan J, Torres M, Hills LA. Fecal bacteriotherapy-an effective treatment for relapsing symptomatic Clostridium difficile infection. Gut 2007; 56(Suppl. III): A303.
  • 39
    Garg S, Walia R, Girotra M, et al. A novel treatment for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in a 20-month-old. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107: S556.
  • 40
    Kahn SA, Young S, Rubin DT. Colonoscopic fecal microbiota transplant for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in a child. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107: 19301.
  • 41
    Rubin TA, Gessert CE, Aas J, Bakken JS. Fecal microbiome transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: report on a case series. Anaerobe 2013; 19: 226.
  • 42
    Singh N, Suskind D, Wahbeh G. Fecal bacteriotherapy in a 6 year old patient with ulcerative colitis and Clostridium difficile. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2012; 18: S69.
  • 43
    Kunde S, Cloney D, Conrad H, Kugathasan S. Fecal microbial transplantation shows efficacy in children with refractory ulcerative colitis-early results of phase i clinical trial. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2012; 18: S667.
  • 44
    Borody TJ, George L, Andrews P, et al. Bowel-flora alteration: a potential cure for inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome? Med j Aust 1989; 150: 604.
  • 45
    Grehan MJ, Borody TJ, Leis SM, Campbell J, Mitchell H, Wettstein A. Durable alteration of the colonic microbiota by the administration of donor fecal flora. J Clin Gastroenterol 2010; 44: 55161.
  • 46
    Andrews PJ, Barnes P, Borody TJ, et al. Chronic constipation reversed by restoration of bowel flora. A case and a hypothesis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 1992; 4: 2457.
  • 47
    Borody T, Leis S, McGrath K, et al. Treatment of chronic constipation and colitis using human probiotic infusions. Probiotics, Prebiotics and New Foods Conference; 2001 September 2–4; Universita Urbaniana, Rome; 2001.
  • 48
    Borody T, Leis S, Campbell J, Torres M, Nowak A. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in multiple sclerosis (MS). Am J Gastroenterol 2011; 106: S352.
  • 49
    Borody TJ, Rosen DM, Torres M, et al. Myoclonus-dystonia (M-D) mediated by GI micrnobiota diarrhoea treatment improves M-D symptoms. Am J Gastroenterol 2011; 106: S352.
  • 50
    Sekirov I, Russell SL, Antunes LC, Finlay BB. Gut microbiota in health and disease. Physiol Rev 2010; 90: 859904.
  • 51
    Finegold SM, Molitoris D, Song Y, et al. Gastrointestinal microflora studies in late-onset autism. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35(Suppl. 1): S616.
  • 52
    Aroniadis OC, Brandt LJ. Fecal microbiota transplantation: past, present and future. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2013; 29: 7984.
  • 53
    Anathaswamy A. Faecal transplant eases symptoms of Parkinson's. New Scientist 2011; 2796: 89.
  • 54
    Vrieze A, Van Nood E, Holleman F, et al. Transfer of intestinal microbiota from lean donors increases insulin sensitivity in individuals with metabolic syndrome. Gastroenterology 2012; 143: 9136.
  • 55
    Borody TJ, Nowak A, Finlayson S. The GI microbiome and its role in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: a summary of bacteriotherapy [online]. J Aust Coll Nutr Env Med 2012; 31: 38.
  • 56
    Borody T, Nowak A, Torres M, Campbell J, Finlayson S, Leis S. Bacteriotherapy in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS): a retrospective review. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107: S5912.
  • 57
    Rosenthal KS. Fecal transplants transfer more than microbiota. Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice 2011; 19: 2768.
  • 58
    Brandt LJ. Fecal transplantation for the treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012; 8: 1914.
  • 59
    Borody T, Torres M, Campbell J, Leis S, Nowak A. Reversal of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with recurrent faecal microbiota transplants (FMT). Am J Gastroenterol 2011; 106: S366.
  • 60
    Khoruts A, Dicksved J, Jansson JK, Sadowsky MJ. Changes in the composition of the human fecal microbiome after bacteriotherapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. J Clin Gastroenterol 2010; 44: 35460.
  • 61
    Borody TJ, Leis SM, Chongnan J, et al. Faecal bacteriotherapy (FB) for chronic C. difficile (Cd) syndromes. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2003; 18(Suppl): B8.
  • 62
    Watson JBHF, Kelly C. First reported complication of fecal microbiota transplant: ulcerative colitis flare after FMT for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection. Gastroenterology 2012; 142: S540.
  • 63
    Aas J, Gessert CE, Bakken JS. Recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis: case series involving 18 patients treated with donor stool administered via a nasogastric tube. Clin Infect Dis 2003; 36: 5805.
  • 64
    Kump PK, Grochenig HP, Lackner S, et al. Successful improvement of dysbiosis by fecal microbiota transplantation is not sufficient to induce clinical remission in chronic active ulcerative colitis. J Crohns Colitis 2013; 7: S155.
  • 65
    Vermeire S, Joossens M, Verbeke K, et al. Pilot study on the safety and efficacy of faecal microbiota transplantation in refractory crohn's disease. Gastroenterology 2012; 142: S360.
  • 66
    Jiang ZD, Hoang LN, Lasco TM, Garey KW, Dupont HL. Physician attitudes toward the use of fecal transplantation for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection in a Metropolitan area. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 56: 105960.
  • 67
    Kahn SA, Gorawara-Bhat R, Rubin DT. Fecal bacteriotherapy for ulcerative colitis: patients are ready, are we? Inflamm Bowel Dis 2012; 18: 67684.
  • 68
    Zipursky JS, Sidorsky TI, Freedman CA, Sidorsky MN, Kirkland KB. Patient attitudes toward the use of fecal microbiota transplantation in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Infect Dis 2012; 55: 16528.
  • 69
    Famularo G, Trinchieri V, De Simone C, Brandt LJ, Persky SE, Borody TJ. Fecal bacteriotherapy or probiotics for the treatment of intestinal diseases? Am J Gastroenterol 2001; 96: 22624.
  • 70
    Turnbaugh PJ, Ley RE, Mahowald MA, Magrini V, Mardis ER, Gordon JI. An obesity-associated gut microbiome with increased capacity for energy harvest. Nature 2006; 444: 102731.
  • 71
    Kelly CR, de Leon L, Jasutkar N. Fecal microbiota transplantation for relapsing Clostridium difficile infection in 26 patients: methodology and results. J Clin Gastroenterol 2012; 46: 1459.
  • 72
    Bakken JS, Borody T, Brandt LJ, et al. Treating Clostridium difficile infection with fecal microbiota transplantation. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2011; 9: 10449.
  • 73
    Gough E, Shaikh H, Manges AR. Systematic review of intestinal microbiota transplantation (fecal bacteriotherapy) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53: 9941002.
  • 74
    Blaser M, Bork P, Fraser C, Knight R, Wang J. The microbiome explored: recent insights and future challenges. Nat Rev Microbiol 2013; 11: 2137.
  • 75
    Brandt LJ. American Journal of Gastroenterology Lecture: intestinal microbiota and the role of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in treatment of C. difficile infection. Am J Gastroenterol 2013; 108: 17785.
  • 76
    Cutolo LCKN, Freund HR, Holker J. Fecal feedings as a therapy in staphylococcus enterocolitis. NY State J Med 1959; 59: 38313.
  • 77
    Fenton SSD, Weder C. Pseudo-membranous colitis associated with antibiotic therapy - an emerging entity. Can Med Assoc J 1974; 111: 1114.
  • 78
    Tvede M, Rask-Madsen J. Bacteriotherapy for chronic relapsing Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in six patients. Lancet 1989; 1: 115660.
  • 79
    Paterson DLIJ, Whitby M. Putting back the bugs: bacterial treatment relieves chronic diarrhoea. Med J Aust 1994; 160: 2323.
  • 80
    Persky SEBL. Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea by administration of donated stool directly through a colonoscope. Am J Gastroenterol 2000; 95: 32835.
  • 81
    Faust G LD, Hadded H, Menard DB. Treatment of recurrent pseudomembranous colitis (RPMC) with stool transplantation (ST): report of six cases. Can J Gastroenterol 2002; 16(Suppl. SA): A43.
  • 82
    You DM, Franzos MA, Holman RP. Successful treatment of fulminant Clostridium difficile infection with fecal bacteriotherapy. Ann Intern Med 2008; 148: 6323.
  • 83
    Keller JJ, Van Nood E, Speelman P, Kuijper EJ. Application of feces transplantation for treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile infection. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Int J Gen Mol Microbiol 2009; 95: 401.
  • 84
    MacConnachie AA, Fox R, Kennedy DR, Seaton RA. Faecal transplant for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a UK case series. QJM 2009; 102: 7814.
  • 85
    Rubin TA, Gessert CE, Aas J. Stool transplantation for older patients with Clostridium difficile infection. J Am Geriatr Soc 2009; 57: 2386.
  • 86
    Arkkila PE, Uusitalo-Seppala R, Lehtola L, Moilanen V, Ristikankare M, Mattila EJ. Fecal bacteriotherapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Gastroenterology 2010; 138: S5.
  • 87
    Rohlke F, Surawicz CM, Stollman N. Fecal flora reconstitution for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: results and methodology. J Clin Gastroenterol 2010; 44: 56770.
  • 88
    Yoon SS, Brandt LJ. Treatment of refractory/recurrent C. difficile-associated disease by donated stool transplanted via colonoscopy: a case series of 12 patients. J Clin Gastroenterol 2010; 44: 5626.
  • 89
    Garborg K, Waagsbo B, Stallemo A, Matre J, Sundoy A. Results of faecal donor instillation therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. Scand J Infect Dis 2010; 42: 85761.
  • 90
    Kelly C, De Leon L. Successful treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection with donor stool administered at colonoscopy: a case series. Am J Gastroenterol 2010; 105: S135.
  • 91
    Miller CB, Dellon E, Isaacs K, Gangarosa L. Fecal bacteriotherapy via colonoscopy as rescue therapy for refractory and recurrent Clostridium difficile - Associated diarrhea. Am J Gastroenterol 2010; 105: S323.
  • 92
    Girotra M, Bartlett J, Koerner K, Dutta S. Combined jejunal and colonic fecal bacteriotherapy in patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (RCDI). Am J Gastroenterol 2011; 106: S1623.
  • 93
    Wilcox GM. Early experience with a Fecal Bacteriotherapy (FB) program for recurrent and c-difficile infection (CDI). Gastroenterology 2011; 140: S361.
  • 94
    Gallegos-Orozco JF, Paskvan-Gawryletz CD, Gurudu SR, Orenstein R. Successful colonoscopic fecal transplant for severe acute Clostridium difficile pseudomembranous colitis. Rev Gastroenterol Mex 2012; 77: 402.
  • 95
    Jorup-Ronstrom C, Hakanson A, Sandell S, et al. Fecal transplant against relapsing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in 32 patients. Scand J Gastroenterol 2012; 47: 54852.
  • 96
    Kurtz M, Morgan M. Concomitant Clostridium difficile colitis and cytomegalovirus colitis in an immunocompetent elderly female. BMJ Case Rep 2012; pii: bcr2012007273.
  • 97
    Mellow M, Kohli V, Jalil S, Jabbour N. Persistent Clostridium difficile infection in a patient with decompensated liver disease: nulldouble transplantnull saves a life!. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107: S461.
  • 98
    Neemann K, Eichele DDD, Smith PPW, Bociek R, Akhtari M, Freifeld A. Fecal microbiota transplantation for fulminant Clostridium difficile infection in an allogeneic stem cell transplant patient. Transpl Infect Dis 2012; 14: E1615.
  • 99
    Kassam Z, Hundal R, Marshall JK, Lee CH. Fecal transplant via retention enema for refractory or recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Arch Intern Med 2012; 172: 1913.
  • 100
    Mattila E, Uusitalo-Seppala R, Wuorela M, et al. Fecal transplantation, through colonoscopy, is effective therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Gastroenterology 2012; 142: 4906.
  • 101
    Trubiano JA, Gardiner B, Kwong JC, Ward P, Testro AG, Charles PGP. Faecal microbiota transplantation for severe Clostridium difficile infection in the intensive care unit. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2013; 25: 2557.
  • 102
    Bennet JD, Brinkman M. Treatment of ulcerative colitis by implantation of normal colonic flora. Lancet 1989; 1: 164.
  • 103
    Borody T, Wettstein A, Leis S, Hills L, Campbell J, Torres M. Clostridium difficile complicating inflammatory bowel diseases: pre- and post-treatment findings. Gastroenterology 2001; 4(Suppl. 1): A361.
  • 104
    Borody TJ, Warren EF, Leis S, Surace R, Ashman O. Treatment of ulcerative colitis using fecal bacteriotherapy. J Clin Gastroenterol 2003; 37: 427.
  • 105
    Borody T, Campbell J, Torres M, Nowak A, Leis S. Reversal of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura [ITP] with fecal microbiota transplantation [FMT]. Am J Gastroenterol 2011; 106: S352.
  • 106
    Borody T, Wettstein A, Campbell J, et al. Fecal microbiota transplantation in ulcerative colitis: review of 24 years experience. Am J Gastroenterol 2012; 107: S665.
  • 107
    Landy J, Omar Al-Hassi H, Ronde E, et al. A prospective controlled pilot study of faecal microbiota transplantation for chronic refractory pouchitis. J Crohns Colitis 2013; 7: S2478.
  • 108
    You D, Johnson M, Duplessis C, Speziale A. Successful Use of Fecal Bacteriotherapy in Severe Crohn's Colitis and Refractory Clostridium difficile Infection. Am J Gastroenterol 2011; 106: S315.
  • 109
    Duplessis CA, You D, Johnson M, Speziale A. Efficacious outcome employing fecal bacteriotherapy in severe Crohn's colitis complicated by refractory Clostridium difficile infection. Infection 2012; 40: 46972.
  • 110
    Neelakanta A, Gunaratnam N, Upadhyay N, et al. Successful treatment of refractory Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) with intestinal microbiotatransplant (IMT) in two patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and its effects on IBD. Gastroenterology 2012;142:S395.
  • 111
    Zainah H, Silverman A. Fecal bacteriotherapy: a case report in an immunosuppressed patient with ulcerative colitis and recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Case Rep Infect Dis 2012; 2012: 810943.