In this study, an archaeometric characterization of 32 ceramic fragments from Talavera de la Reina and El Puente del Arzobispo, dated between the 16th and 18th centuries, has been carried out. Together with three fragments of biscuit, they have been analysed through X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis (DSC–TGA). From these chemical results, a statistical study using exclusively majolica ceramics has been carried out. This work has allowed us to find certain differences between the manufactures of the two production centres on the basis of their chemical composition. The mineralogical study has allowed us to determine the estimated firing temperatures of each sample, using the estimated firing temperature (EFT) as an argument for their classification into three fabrics.