• Lead-tin yellow;
  • Lead–tin orange;
  • Glazed tiles;
  • India;
  • Zinc;
  • Characterization;
  • Spot analysis;
  • SEM;
  • Raman spectroscopy

We describe the historical appearance, composition and texture of a little-known orange pigment in 17th-century northern India. The pigment shares similarities with lead–tin yellow type II, but has between 6 and 7 wt% zinc oxide instead of silica as a minor element in its structure, in addition to the dominant lead and tin oxide. The consistency of its occurrence and composition across several important and highly decorated monuments and relatively wide chronological and geographical ranges of use indicate the controlled and intentional production of this pigment. We propose to use the name lead–tin orange for this material, indicating its similarity to lead–tin yellow but highlighting its independent character and distinct colour.