The Intentional Use of Lead–tin Orange in Indian Islamic Glazes and Its Preliminary Characterization
Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Archaeometry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of University of Oxford.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Volume 56, Issue 6, pages 1009–1023, December 2014
How to Cite
Gill, M. S. and Rehren, Th. (2014), The Intentional Use of Lead–tin Orange in Indian Islamic Glazes and Its Preliminary Characterization. Archaeometry, 56: 1009–1023. doi: 10.1111/arcm.12062
- Issue online: 20 NOV 2014
- Version of Record online: 17 OCT 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 20 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Received: 11 MAY 2013
- Lead-tin yellow;
- Lead–tin orange;
- Glazed tiles;
- Spot analysis;
- Raman spectroscopy
We describe the historical appearance, composition and texture of a little-known orange pigment in 17th-century northern India. The pigment shares similarities with lead–tin yellow type II, but has between 6 and 7 wt% zinc oxide instead of silica as a minor element in its structure, in addition to the dominant lead and tin oxide. The consistency of its occurrence and composition across several important and highly decorated monuments and relatively wide chronological and geographical ranges of use indicate the controlled and intentional production of this pigment. We propose to use the name lead–tin orange for this material, indicating its similarity to lead–tin yellow but highlighting its independent character and distinct colour.