Muscles play important roles in feeding, respiration and swimming during not only adult stage but also larval stage in fish. However, there is no information of the muscle development in larval greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili (Risso). Here, we investigated muscle development in the greater amberjack, focusing primarily on the cranial muscles from 0 days post hatch (dph) to 12 dph using a modified whole-mount immunohistochemical staining method. We found that the muscles required for feeding develop by 3 dph, when the larvae begin to feed. Subsequently, muscle composition in the dorsal branchial arches changes to the adult form between 5 and 8 dph. At 8 dph, all the muscles required for feeding and respiration appear, whereas the dorsal, pelvic and caudal fin muscles required for swimming develop later. This report provides fundamental information on larval greater amberjack muscle development, which will enable the detection of abnormal larval muscles and improve larval rearing techniques by modifying environmental conditions.