• music industry;
  • aesthetic labour;
  • physical and virtual space;
  • Toronto

In this paper we examine the changing nature of aesthetic labour in creative industries. Drawing on a case study of independent musicians in Toronto, we argue that the spatiality and temporality of aesthetic labour has shifted as a result of technological change in the music industry and the decline of record labels. In particular, we demonstrate that aesthetic labour in the music industry has become more time-intensive and takes place across a growing range of spaces, including the stage, the home and online. This paper contributes to existing studies in geography that consider the spatial dynamics and precarious conditions of creative labour.