This article examines two prominent ideologues, Ali Shariati of Iran and Maulana Maududi of Pakistan, in order to determine their influence on national politics in the second half of the 20th century. Were they only fundamental actors of political Islam in their societies, or did they also have a significant impact on the reformation of Iranian and Pakistani nationalism? If they did, who exactly were Shariati and Maududi, and what are their legacies? In order to answer these questions, this article focuses on the Iranian experience with nationalism before and after the Iranian Revolution (1979) and Pakistani nationalism embedded with Islamism from independence (1947) until the end of the 1980s. In light of Ranajit Guha's concept of hegemony, this article brings to the foreground the possibility of alternative ways of thinking and belonging.