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Encephalomyocarditis virus infection in a splenectomised calf

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Abstract

Background

Encephalomyocarditis (EMC) caused by EMC virus (EMCV) was diagnosed in a 5-month-old splenectomised calf, which died suddenly on an experimental farm that had a high infestation of rodents.

Results

At postmortem examination, the lungs were dark purple and diffusely congested. On histological examination, the calf had severe necrotising myocarditis. EMCV was isolated from the heart. The polyprotein gene of the EMCV isolate was amplified by PCR and had 85–91% identity with published EMCV sequences, including 89% identity with isolates from Queensland. On phylogenetic analysis, the polyprotein gene had highest sequence identity with South Korean EMCV strain, CBNU.

Conclusion

This is the first report of naturally occurring EMC in cattle in Australia and the first report of naturally occurring bovine EMC from which EMCV has been isolated.

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