(1) What is the utility of the soil seed bank in passive restoration of a suburban secondary successional temperate deciduous forest? (2) What is the composition and structure of the seed bank? (3) How abundant are woody and exotic species and how are they distributed in the seed bank? (4) Are edge effects evident in seed bank composition? (5) What is the influence of a suite of abiotic and biotic variables, including deer browse, on seed bank richness and abundance?