Applied Vegetation Science

Cover image for Vol. 16 Issue 2

April 2013

Volume 16, Issue 2

Pages 169–351

  1. Commentaries

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentaries
    3. Original Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      Can exotic pine trees assist in restoration? (pages 169–170)

      David A. Norton and Adam Forbes

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12014

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      Invasive exotic woody species, including conifers escaped from plantations, are usually regarded as serious threats to native biodiversity. Becerra & Montenegro (Applied Vegetation Science, 16, 2013, 2) present an interesting example of invasive Pinus radiata facilitating native woody regeneration in semi-arid central Chile. However, the positive value of invasive conifers for restoration and conservation will not necessarily apply in all situations.

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      Local trait organization established (pages 171–172)

      Ingolf Kühn

      Article first published online: 4 MAR 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12022

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      Traditionally, ecological theory on community assembly and applied vegetation science are considered distinct. Fischer et al. (this issue of Applied Vegetation Science), however, show neatly how differences in trait composition between resident and colonizing species could be established. By using an environmental context-specific approach, the analysis bridges the gap between application and more theoretical understanding of vegetation ecology.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentaries
    3. Original Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      The widely invasive tree Pinus radiata facilitates regeneration of native woody species in a semi-arid ecosystem (pages 173–183)

      Pablo I. Becerra and Gloria Montenegro

      Article first published online: 23 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01221.x

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      In this paper we document that invading individuals of the widely invasive species, Pinus radiata, may facilitates regeneration of native woody species in central Chile, increasing species richness and abundance. We also propose that invasion by this exotic tree may be exploited in restoration processes in semiarid ecosystems by using invading individuals as nurse plants for native species.

    2. Ecological resistance to Acer negundo invasion in a European riparian forest: relative importance of environmental and biotic drivers (pages 184–192)

      Patrick Saccone, Jacky Girel, Jean-Philippe Pages, Jean-Jacques Brun and Richard Michalet

      Article first published online: 10 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01227.x

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      In this study we investigated how plant-plant interactions contributed to the Alnus incana riparian communities of the French Upper Rhone River resistance to Acer negundo invasion. Our results showed that in the presence of tree canopy and herb layer the Acer seedling survival strongly decreased compared to open areas and the Alnus growth rate was twice than those of other species.

    3. Both complete clearing and thinning of invasive trees lead to short-term recovery of native riparian vegetation in the Western Cape, South Africa (pages 193–204)

      Sheunesu Ruwanza, Mirijam Gaertner, Karen J. Esler and David M. Richardson

      Article first published online: 15 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01222.x

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      In this paper we show that both complete clearing and thinning of invasive eucalypts promote indigenous vegetation recovery in riparian ecosystems. The fact that native species re-established without active restoration intervention suggests that the native ecosystem was still resilient enough for autogenic recovery. To improve management operations we suggest a four-stage thinning process that has the potential to facilitate native species recovery.

    4. Spatio-temporal dynamics of the invasive plant species Elytrigia atherica on natural salt marshes (pages 205–216)

      Roos M. Veeneklaas, Kees S. Dijkema, Norbert Hecker and Jan P. Bakker

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01228.x

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      In the past decades an increase of monotonous stands of E. atherica is observed on salt marshes along the Wadden Sea coast. In this study we address the question whether this rapid expansion is driven by anthropogenic eutrophication or is it an outcome of natural succession. Secondly we reveal that there is a world beyond E. atherica.

    5. Quantifying landscape change during the last two centuries in Białowieża Primeval Forest (pages 217–226)

      Anna Mikusinska, Bernadetta Zawadzka, Tomasz Samojlik, Bogumiła Jędrzejewska and Grzegorz Mikusiński

      Article first published online: 1 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01220.x

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      Maps covering the period 1793–1999 were used to quantify the landscape change in the Białowieża Primeval Forest. We found that most of the area (>70%) has continuously been covered by forest, although some parts of it had been converted into agricultural land and villages, especially in the 19th century. In the 20th century, the trend was reversed.

    6. Spatial predictions of land-use transitions and associated threats to biodiversity: the case of forest regrowth in mountain grasslands (pages 227–236)

      Loïc Pellissier, Maruska Anzini, Luigi Maiorano, Anne Dubuis, Julien Pottier, Pascal Vittoz and Antoine Guisan

      Article first published online: 21 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01215.x

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      Less pervasive than intensification of human activities, land abandonment followed by forest regrowth occurring in more remote areas like mountain can also represent a serious threat to biodiversity through loss of species-rich grasslands. Here we show that the likely location of land abandonment can be predicted and those models can inform on where to protect threatened surfaces of high biodiversity.

    7. Temporal changes in forest plant communities at different site types (pages 237–247)

      Gorik Verstraeten, Lander Baeten, Tine Van den Broeck, Pieter De Frenne, Andreas Demey, Wesley Tack, Bart Muys and Kris Verheyen

      Article first published online: 7 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01226.x

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      In 2008, vegetation recordings from 1953 to 1954 were re-inventoried in a forests on two site types in Belgium. The changes on the acidophilous sites where mostly not significant. On the neutrophilous sites, mean plot species richness declined significantly, and based on the plant-derived characteristics of the plots, light availability decreased and nitrogen availability significantly increased.

    8. Vegetation responses to long-term alkaline cement dust pollution in Pinus sylvestris-dominated boreal forests – niche breadth along the soil pH gradient (pages 248–259)

      Jaanus Paal, Polina Degtjarenko, Ave Suija and Jaan Liira

      Article first published online: 13 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01224.x

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      Soil alkalization of the pine forest's in northern Estonia caused by cement kiln dust pollution has induced a succession from typical boreal vegetation toward vegetation of boreo-nemoral habitats. The establishment of calcicolous species shows their lack of dispersal limitation; species filtering success is determined by a critical level at the one end of the niche breath along the limiting gradient.

    9. Deforestation and precipitation patterns in the arid Chaco forests of central Argentina (pages 260–271)

      L.E. Hoyos, A.M. Cingolani, M.R. Zak, M.V. Vaieretti, D.E. Gorla and M.R. Cabido

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01218.x

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      The vegetation cover in the study area is highly disturbed. In the humid sector the land cover changes have been dominated by a replacement of closed forests by crops, while in the driest, forest loss was not related to agriculture. The significant increases in precipitation have occurred in the three sectors but in the humid one, the increase was highest.

    10. You have free access to this content
      Urban grassland restoration: which plant traits make desired species successful colonizers? (pages 272–285)

      Leonie K. Fischer, Moritz von der Lippe and Ingo Kowarik

      Article first published online: 2 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01216.x

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      Analysing trait composition of target and spontaneous species in grassland restoration on urban wastelands, we reveal clear differences between successful and failed target species (e.g., plant height). In comparison to resident and soil seed bank species, target species partially fill vacant niches, but also resemble traits of spontaneous species. High competitive ability is crucial for establishment success in target species.

    11. Plant seedlings in a species-rich meadow: effect of management, vegetation type and functional traits (pages 286–295)

      Ondřej Mudrák, Jiří Doležal, Michal Hájek, Martin Dančák, Leoš Klimeš and Jitka Klimešová

      Article first published online: 4 NOV 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12001

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      We assessed number and identity of forb seedlings in species rich meadow after two years of various management. Number of plant seedling species was substantially suppressed after the management cessation. Plants producing seedlings were non-clonals threatened by abandonment and plants without seedlings were clonal dominants. Hindered generative regeneration was proposed as responsible for species decline after meadow abandonment.

    12. Effects of grasses on sapling establishment and the role of transplanted saplings on the light environment of pastures: implications for tropical forest restoration (pages 296–304)

      Paula Meli and Rodolfo Dirzo

      Article first published online: 5 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01217.x

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      We evaluated the effects of grasses on the establishment of four fast-growth tree saplings in a Neotropical abandoned pasture, and the potential of saplings to modify light incidence. Grasses did not seem to represent a limiting factor in sapling establishment in the short term. Shading by recruited saplings could be important to outcompete grasses and therefore ‘facilitate’ more shade-tolerant species.

    13. Co-variation between plant above-ground biomass and phenology in sub-alpine grasslands (pages 305–316)

      Antoine Duparc, Claire Redjadj, Flore Viard-Crétat, Sandra Lavorel, Gunnar Austrheim and Anne Loison

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01225.x

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      Covariation between phenology and temporal biomass dynamics at plant community level may be important criteria of resource selection for upper trophic levels. In subalpine grasslands, flowering, followed maximum productivity but with a shorter lag the later the peak of productivity. Snow regime explained when biomass peaked but the end of the growing season imposed a constraint on flowering dates. Picture by Marc Cornillon.

    14. Vegetation phenology can be captured with digital repeat photography and linked to variability of root nutrition in Hedysarum alpinum (pages 317–324)

      W. Nijland, N.C. Coops, S.C.P. Coogan, C.W. Bater, M.A. Wulder, S.E. Nielsen, G. McDermid and G.B. Stenhouse

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12000

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      Repeat photography can reliably detect the phenological development of Hedysarum alpinum, an important grizzly bear food species in the foothills and front ranges of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, Canada. Through the relation between phenology and root nutrition, we illustrate how camera data can be used to predict the spatial and temporal distribution and quality of a key wildlife resource.

    15. Leaf functional traits for the assessment of succession following management in semi-natural grasslands: a case study in the North Apennines, Italy (pages 325–332)

      Stefano Targetti, Alessandro Messeri, Nicolina Staglianò and Giovanni Argenti

      Article first published online: 9 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01223.x

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      We identified four grassland sites in similar ecological conditions and under different management practices for ten or more years. Weighted Leaf Dry Matter Content, weighted Leaf Nitrogen Content and weighted Specific Leaf Area were able to differentiate the most intensely managed site from the others. Indicators based on leaf functional traits could aid the formulation of rational management plans.

    16. A methodological approach for assessing the effects of disturbance factors on the conservation status of Mediterranean coastal dune systems (pages 333–342)

      Fabio Attorre, Alberto Maggini, Mario Di Traglia, Michele De Sanctis and Marcello Vitale

      Article first published online: 24 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12002

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      Mediterranean coastal dunes are threatened by human disturbances. For this reason the need for quantitatively assessing their conservation status and the effects of disturbance factors on them emerged. Our paper was aimed at evaluating the relationship between the presence of typical dune habitats and plant diversity indexes, and disturbance factors by means of Multiple Correspondence Analysis and multi-way ANOVA.

    17. Broad-scale satellite Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data predict plant biomass and peak date of nitrogen concentration in Arctic tundra vegetation (pages 343–351)

      Madeleine Doiron, Pierre Legagneux, Gilles Gauthier and Esther Lévesque

      Article first published online: 9 JUL 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1654-109X.2012.01219.x

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      Using 8 yr of plant data, this study shows that satellite-derived NDVI can be a good proxy for aboveground biomass and the date of peak nitrogen concentration of wetland graminoid plants in an Arctic tundra system. We conclude that NDVI can be a reliable measure of seasonal changes in the timing and availability of high quality food for herbivores.

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