Applied Vegetation Science

Cover image for Vol. 17 Issue 2

April 2014

Volume 17, Issue 2

Pages 187–380

  1. Special Feature: Ecological Restoration

    1. Top of page
    2. Special Feature: Ecological Restoration
    3. Original Articles
    4. Vegetation Survey
    1. Optimization of intervention levels in ecological restoration (pages 187–192)

      Lawrence R. Walker, Norbert Hölzel, Robert Marrs, Roger del Moral and Karel Prach

      Article first published online: 24 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12082

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      A comparative analysis of intervention levels in ten examples of restoration from Europe suggest that optimal intervention occurs where disturbance severity is either low or high. The spatial and temporal scales at which restoration was applied were not as influential as disturbance severity to restoration success. Metadata analyses are needed to develop general restoration guidelines.

    2. Vegetation succession in restoration of disturbed sites in Central Europe: the direction of succession and species richness across 19 seres (pages 193–200)

      Karel Prach, Klára Řehounková, Kamila Lencová, Alena Jírová, Petra Konvalinková, Ondřej Mudrák, Vojtěch Študent, Zdeněk Vaněček, Lubomír Tichý, Petr Petřík, Petr Šmilauer and Petr Pyšek

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12064

    3. Impact of mid-successional dominant species on the diversity and progress of succession in regenerating temperate grasslands (pages 201–213)

      Sándor Bartha, Szilárd Szentes, András Horváth, Judit Házi, Zita Zimmermann, Csaba Molnár, István Dancza, Katalin Margóczi, Róbert W. Pál, Dragica Purger, Dávid Schmidt, Miklós Óvári, Cecília Komoly, Zsuzsanna Sutyinszki, Gábor Szabó, András István Csathó, Melinda Juhász, Károly Penksza and Zsolt Molnár

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12066

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      Based on a regional survey, eight species (2% of mid-successional species pool) were identified with strong negative effects on succession. Our results suggest that mid-successional plots dominated by alien species, or by native species that were originally subordinate in natural communities, regenerate less successfully and may arrest succession. Therefore, early colonization of native dominants should be enhanced by restoration measures.

    4. Secondary succession in sandy old-fields: a promising example of spontaneous grassland recovery (pages 214–224)

      Ágnes-Júlia Albert, András Kelemen, Orsolya Valkó, Tamás Miglécz, Anikó Csecserits, Tamás Rédei, Balázs Deák, Béla Tóthmérész and Péter Török

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12068

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      We studied the spontaneous succession in altogether 24 differently aged old-fields in two sand regions of Hungary. Most of the target species established already in young and middle-aged old-fields, although their cover was higher in the late succession old-fields. Our results suggest that spontaneous succession can be a vital option in recovery of sand grassland vegetation.

    5. Restoration dynamics evaluation by vegetation mapping and transition matrix modelling: analysis of 20 yr of restoration and management at the megalithic site of Carnac (Brittany, France) (pages 225–235)

      Sébastien Gallet and Jérôme Sawtschuk

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12080

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      This paper shows how the analyze of repeated vegetation maps through a matrix approach allowed to make a description of vegetation dynamics on a complex and heterogenous site that is submitted both to restoration processes, vegetation management and touristic pressure. It underlines the unexploited potential of map collections for conservation and restoration ecology.

    6. Topsoil removal improves various restoration treatments of a Mediterranean steppe (La Crau, southeast France) (pages 236–245)

      Renaud Jaunatre, Elise Buisson and Thierry Dutoit

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12063

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      Can topsoil removal improve the restoration of a Mediterranean steppe plant community? Our results show that on a former industrial orchard, removing topsoil partly restored soil conditions and reduced the non-target seed bank. Topsoil removal increased species-richness and similarity to the steppe. Communities most closely resembling the reference were obtained when topsoil removal is combined with soil or hay transfer.

    7. Effect of topsoil removal and plant material transfer on vegetation development in created Mediterranean meso-xeric grasslands (pages 246–261)

      Isabelle Muller, François Mesléard and Elise Buisson

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12059

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      In order to restore Mediterranean meso-xeric grassland plant community, plant material transfer combined with topsoil removal appears to be a relevant method. Removing 5 cm of topsoil eliminates half of the density of the undesired seed bank in former ricefield. However, the ability of target species to establish and persist in restored vegetation communities will require good management.

    8. Seed bank and its restoration potential in Estonian flooded meadows (pages 262–273)

      Jaak-Albert Metsoja, Lena Neuenkamp and Martin Zobel

      Article first published online: 12 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12057

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      We studied the restoration potential of the persistent soil seed bank (SB) in abandoned flooded meadows in central Estonia. Although SB similarity to locally defined target vegetation was <20%, the proportion of typical flooded meadow species in SB remained high (up to 42%) even after 50-yr abandonment. SB could thus play an important role in the restoration of abandoned meadows.

    9. Establishment of hemiparasitic Rhinanthus spp. in grassland restoration: lessons learned from sowing experiments (pages 274–287)

      Ondřej Mudrák, Jan Mládek, Petr Blažek, Jan Lepš, Jiří Doležal, Eliška Nekvapilová and Jakub Těšitel

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12073

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      Introduction of hemiparasitic Rhinanthus spp. represents an effective method of facilitating species-rich grassland restoration. However, establishment of the hemiparasites by sowing can fail for various reasons. Based on a number of field experiments and an extensive literature review, we summarize current experience with Rhinanthus sowing, identifying factors that can affect establishment success of Rhinanthus in ecological experiments or restoration practice.

    10. How to develop native plant communities in heavily altered ecosystems: examples from large-scale surface mining in Germany (pages 288–301)

      Sabine Tischew, Annett Baasch, Harald Grunert and Anita Kirmer

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12078

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      Using comprehensive databases and a chronosequence approach we show, that spontaneous succession supports the development of native plant communities. However, because of propagule limitation colonization processes may lead to novel assemblies of native species. While dispersal stochasticity during spontaneous succession results in a higher γ-diversity, species introduction supports faster trajectories towards desired reference states providing important ecosystem services such as erosion control.

    11. A simple test for alternative states in ecological restoration: the use of principal response curves (pages 302–311)

      Josu G. Alday and Rob H. Marrs

      Article first published online: 15 JUL 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12054

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      We describe the application of principal response curves (PRC), a multivariate approach, to test for the creation of alternative states or alternative stable states in ecological restoration studies. This is a very versatil methodology providing robust results, statistically defensible and repeatable. Finally this approach can be used to infer the resistance and resilience of the starting communities.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Special Feature: Ecological Restoration
    3. Original Articles
    4. Vegetation Survey
    1. Fire and gap dynamics over 300 years in an old-growth temperate forest (pages 312–322)

      Ryan W. McEwan, Neil Pederson, Adrienne Cooper, Josh Taylor, Robert Watts and Amy Hruska

      Article first published online: 16 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12060

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      Fire and gap dynamics occurred throughout much of the last ca. 330 yrs in this old-growth forest. Based on the composite chronology, fires appear to occur less frequently prior to 1850. We postulate that fire and gap dynamics played a synergistic role in long-term forest dynamics. We also document growth patterns that suggest simultaneous canopy accession across relatively large areas.

    2. Effects of post-windthrow salvage logging on microsites, plant composition and regeneration (pages 323–337)

      Kaysandra Waldron, Jean-Claude Ruel, Sylvie Gauthier, Louis De Grandpré and Chris J. Peterson

      Article first published online: 28 AUG 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12061

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      Ecological consequences of post-windthrow salvage logging remain unknown, precluding the development of salvage guidelines that can help maintain key attributes. We described the understory vegetation, tree regeneration and microsites in salvaged and unsalvaged windthrow as a means of documenting salvage logging effects on some of the key attributes. We showed that salvage logging reduced seedbeds heterogeneity and affected plant composition.

    3. Relationships of native trees with grasses in a temperate, semi-arid sandy ecosystem of northern China (pages 338–345)

      Hongxiao Yang, Jianmin Chu, Qi Lu and Ting Gao

      Article first published online: 4 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12062

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      In semiarid sandy ecosystems of the Otindag, the native elm trees are mostly not competitors with grasses. Instead, they facilitate surrounding grasses to produce biomass more efficiently with limited precipitation and soil moisture. The native elms can be used for ecosystem restoration and desertification control.

    4. Can organic rice crops help conserve aquatic plants in southern Brazil wetlands? (pages 346–355)

      Maria G. Linke, Robson S. Godoy, Ana S. Rolon and Leonardo Maltchik

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12069

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      Our results showed that both conventional and organic systems negatively impacted macrophyte biodiversity. However this result should not be seen as negative for organic crops because it shows that organic techniques with less impact (plant control by managing flooding and draining the planting area) can be efficient in undesirable plants control, reducing the use of herbicides in agricultural areas.

    5. Estimating plant biomass in early-successional subtropical vegetation using a visual obstruction technique (pages 356–366)

      Genie M. Fleming, Joseph M. Wunderle Jr, David N. Ewert and Joseph J. O'Brien

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12067

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      Non-destructive methods for quantifying aboveground plant biomass are important ecological tools. We present a simple, low-cost visual obstruction method for estimating plant biomass. Our technique was developed in early-successional subtropical shrub vegetation and yielded reasonably accurate estimates of biomass. It should be transferrable to any shrubland vegetation type where the maximum height of vegetation is typically below two meters.

  3. Vegetation Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Special Feature: Ecological Restoration
    3. Original Articles
    4. Vegetation Survey
    1. Biogeographic patterns of base-rich fen vegetation across Europe (pages 367–380)

      Borja Jiménez-Alfaro, Michal Hájek, Rasmus Ejrnaes, John Rodwell, Paweł Pawlikowski, Eddy J. Weeda, Jarmo Laitinen, Absjørn Moen, Ariel Bergamini, Liene Aunina, Lucia Sekulová, Teemu Tahvanainen, François Gillet, Ute Jandt, Daniel Dítě, Petra Hájková, Gilles Corriol, Hanna Kondelin and Tomás E. Díaz

      Article first published online: 15 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12065

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      This paper shows a comprehensive overview of base-rich fen communities in Europe. The Alpine biogeographic region supports the highest numbers in specialists and vegetation types. Analyses with different plot sizes reveal consistent gradients in species composition and their correlations with climate and geography. The results provide a basis for the classification of base-rich fen habitats at continental scale.

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