Applied Vegetation Science

Cover image for Vol. 17 Issue 3

July 2014

Volume 17, Issue 3

Pages 381–610

  1. Commentaries

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentaries
    3. Original Articles
    4. Vegetation Survey
    5. Forum
    6. Editorial Response
    1. You have free access to this content
      Diversity patterns in a diversity hotspot (pages 381–383)

      John-Arvid Grytnes and Vivian A. Felde

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12109

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      Elevational treelines are commonly seen as particularly important ecological ‘ecotones’ that should, according to models, respond sensitively to climate change. In this issue, Mathisen et al. report empirical analyses of two treelines that fail to show expected upward movement. This study points up both methodological and conceptual challenges in understanding ecological edges and in connecting general expectations to specific cases.

    2. You have free access to this content
      Separating risks from values in setting priorities for plant community conservation (pages 384–385)

      David A. Keith

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12112

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      Berg and colleagues, in this issue, describe a framework for assessing risks to biodiversity and setting conservation priorities in northeast Germany. Their method explicitly separates community endangerment from conservation value, and derives its plant communities from a sound regional classification. It could be improved by incorporating ecological processes, socio-political constraints, economic costs and the likelihood of success.

  2. Original Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentaries
    3. Original Articles
    4. Vegetation Survey
    5. Forum
    6. Editorial Response
    1. Structural and floristic diversity of mixed tropical rain forest in New Caledonia: new data from the New Caledonian Plant Inventory and Permanent Plot Network (NC-PIPPN) (pages 386–397)

      Thomas Ibanez, Jérôme Munzinger, Gilles Dagostini, Vanessa Hequet, Frédéric Rigault, Tanguy Jaffré and Philippe Birnbaum

      Article first published online: 13 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12070

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      The New Caledonian Plant Inventory and Permanent Plot Network (NC-PIPPN) offers new opportunities to investigate structural and floristic diversity of tropical rainforest in the biodiversity hotspot of New Caledonia. Through the study of 201 plots and the inventory of 28,640 trees belonging to 749 species, 240 genera and 92 families we explored the environmental and spatial drivers of rainforest diversity.

    2. Functional diversity of ground-layer plant communities in old-growth and managed northern hardwood forests (pages 398–407)

      Francesco M. Sabatini, Julia I. Burton, Robert M. Scheller, Kathryn L. Amatangelo and David J. Mladenoff

      Article first published online: 16 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12083

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      We elucidated a set of life-history traits providing a synthetic view of vegetation response to forest management. Functional diversity of ground-layer plant communities was related to differences in environmental conditions related to forest structure, suggesting that habitat filtering contributes to compositional differences at the community level. We discussed these differences with reference to plants' general strategies and carbon economy.

    3. The natural regeneration of calcareous grassland at a landscape scale: 150 years of plant community re-assembly on Salisbury Plain, UK (pages 408–418)

      John W. Redhead, John Sheail, James M. Bullock, Andrea Ferreruela, Kevin J. Walker and Richard F. Pywell

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12076

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      We examined natural regeneration in an extensive calcareous grassland landscape over a 150 yrs timescale. Results showed that natural regeneration takes over a century when measured by functional traits and plant community composition, despite comparatively rapid changes in the occurrence of individual species. These findings emphasize the value of existing ancient calcareous grasslands and the challenges facing restoration efforts.

    4. Nutrient pulses after prescribed winter fires and preferential patterns of N uptake may contribute to the expansion of Brachypodium pinnatum (L.) P. Beauv. in highland grasslands (pages 419–428)

      Rosa-Maria Canals, Javier Pedro, Esther Rupérez and Leticia San-Emeterio

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12088

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      Winter prescribed fires are used in Pyrennees to prevent semi-natural grasslands from shrub encroachment. This research tracks the soil changes produced by experimental burnings and analyses its potential relationship with the aggressive expansion of the grass Brachypodium pinnatum. The results of a stable-isotope field experiment suggest that B. pinnatum may take advantage of the dynamic pulse of inorganic-N released by fires.

    5. Is spring burning a viable management tool for species-rich grasslands? (pages 429–441)

      Per Milberg, Brenda Akoto, Karl-Olof Bergman, Håkan Fogelfors, Heidi Paltto and Malin Tälle

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12091

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      Within the context of evidence-based conservation, we provide clear evidence that spring burning is not a viable long-term alternative to grazing or mowing. We do this by using odds ratios for finding indicator species, rather than using more traditional methods of vegetation analyses, and by meta-analyses of the outcomes from 11 field trials.

    6. Twentieth century shifts in abundance and composition of vegetation types of the Sierra Nevada, CA, US (pages 442–455)

      Christopher R. Dolanc, Hugh D. Safford, Solomon Z. Dobrowski and James H. Thorne

      Article first published online: 4 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12079

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      We used two enormous data sets that span all land jurisdictions in the Sierra Nevada, CA to compare historical and modern conditions of major vegetation types. For all types of the west slope, tree density is markedly higher, but east-slope types appear unchanged. Changes are likely driven by a combination of management and climate change.

    7. The impact of native large herbivores and fire on the vegetation dynamics in the Cape renosterveld shrublands of South Africa: insights from a six-yr field experiment (pages 456–469)

      Frans G.T. Radloff, Ladislav Mucina and Dirk Snyman

      Article first published online: 20 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12086

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      The effect of fire and herbivory on three vegetation states (shrubland, grazing lawn grassland and tussock grassland) of a Mediterranean-type shrubland ecosystem in South Africa were investigated. Palatable shrubs proliferated in tussock grassland protected from herbivory. Unpalatable shrubs invaded burnt grazing lawn areas exposed to herbivory. The shrubland state was affected by fire, herbivory and the interaction between the two.

    8. Response of community-aggregated plant functional traits along grazing gradients: insights from African semi-arid grasslands (pages 470–481)

      Cristian A. Moreno García, Jürgen Schellberg, Frank Ewert, Katharina Brüser, Pablo Canales-Prati, Anja Linstädter, Roelof J. Oomen, Jan C. Ruppert and Susana B. Perelman

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12092

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      Understanding the functional response of vegetation along grazing gradients might assist range management decisions (e.g. frequency and intensity of grazing, restoration practices). We studied the response of community-aggregated plant functional traits to grazing by applying a taxon-free sampling. At water points vicinity, vegetation with fast-growth strategy-with faster and more efficient light capture-resists heavy grazing and provides high-quality nutritional forage.

    9. Restoration of Neotropical grasslands degraded by quarrying using hay transfer (pages 482–492)

      Soizig Le Stradic, Elise Buisson and Geraldo W. Fernandes

      Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12074

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      Currently threatened by mining and quarrying, we tested to restore campos rupestres, neotropical grasslands, using hay transfer. Few seedlings emerged within 14 mo despite the large number of seeds contained in the hay. We suggest that germination issues of the campo rupestre species are the first limitation for restoring degraded campos rupestres using hay transfer.

    10. Community ontogeny at the roadside: Critical life-cycle events throughout a sequential process of primary colonization (pages 493–503)

      Sandra Magro, María Dolores Jiménez, Miguel Angel Casado, Ignacio Mola, Juan Maria Arenas, Jose Francisco Martín-Duque, Ana Vazquez and Luis Balaguer

      Article first published online: 29 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12095

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      The present study highlights the importance of the ontogeny of pioneers that occur concurrently with the action of environmental filters throughout the early community assembly. On roadcuts, we detected seedling emergence and seedling survival as thresholds determining community richness and cover respectively. Technical solutions as topsoil spreading, help in overcoming these threshold and trigger plant community development.

    11. Red Lists and conservation prioritization of plant communities – a methodological framework (pages 504–515)

      Christian Berg, Anja Abdank, Maike Isermann, Florian Jansen, Tiemo Timmermann and Jürgen Dengler

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12093

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      We present a conservation assessment methodology for plant communities. Our approach combines ideas from modern red-listing and prioritization into a methodological framework. For each vegetation type, we derive a ‘need for action’ based on the separate assessment of endangerment and conservation value. All steps are based on explicit rules for successive aggregation of quantitative criteria via decision matrices.

    12. Species distribution modelling for plant communities: stacked single species or multivariate modelling approaches? (pages 516–527)

      Emilie B. Henderson, Janet L. Ohmann, Matthew J. Gregory, Heather M. Roberts and Harold Zald

      Article first published online: 15 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12085

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      Community-level mapping presents unique challenges. We explore two approaches to multi-species mapping: stacking single-species models (presence-absence and abundance) and a multivariate model. We discuss map strengths and weaknesses for several applications (e.g. conservation and climate change projections). Multivariate maps were useful for a broader range of applications than stacked maps, although each single-species model excelled in at least one dimension.

    13. Application of consensus theory to formalize expert evaluations of plant species distribution models (pages 528–542)

      Maarten van Zonneveld, Nora Castañeda, Xavier Scheldeman, Jacob van Etten and Patrick Van Damme

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12081

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      Foresters, botanists, ecologists and park managers are a key information source to validate plant distribution models because of their first-hand experience with species occurrence and absence. In this study, we introduce a method to formalize their evaluations based on culture consensus theory and we present an online tool with Google Earth interface to ask experts feedback on distribution maps.

    14. Predictive modelling and monitoring of Ellenberg moisture value validates restoration success in floodplain forests (pages 543–555)

      Petra Lang and Jörg Ewald

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12089

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      A GAM-based predictive vegetation model was produced to project alluvial forest vegetation as a response to a changed hydrological regime. Modeling of Ellenberg indicator value for moisture instead of single species or vegetation types is a new approach to capture the effects of restoration measures on floodplain vegetation as a whole and will guide future management.

    15. How does vegetation sampling in different parts of the growing season influence classification results and analyses of beta diversity? (pages 556–566)

      Marie Vymazalová, Lubomír Tichý and Irena Axmanová

      Article first published online: 3 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12087

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      We surveyed whether combining vegetation plots recorded in different parts of the growing season might confound vegetation classifications or beta-diversity estimates of temperate deciduous forests and dry grasslands. Based on our results, we recommend using summer-recorded plots in classifications, as they are the most robust to various classifications settings, well represented in databases and correspond approximately to the phenological optimum.

    16. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Unmanned aircraft systems help to map aquatic vegetation (pages 567–577)

      Eva Husson, Olle Hagner and Frauke Ecke

      Article first published online: 15 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12072

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      Unmanned aircraft systems are convenient providers of sub-decimetre-resolution aerial images. We found that such images allow for the identification and mapping of non-submerged aquatic and riparian vegetation at the species level as well as for abundance estimates.

    17. Using partial volumes to estimate available browse biomass in Southern African semi-arid savannas (pages 578–590)

      Caryn A. Penderis and Kevin P. Kirkman

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12084

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      Our study provides a non-linear regression analysis method for estimating available browse biomass of savanna tree species from calculated tree partial canopy volumes. The use of partial volumes accounts for variation in canopy shapes, and allows for the determination of available browse biomass between upper and lower canopy bounds. The general models developed provide an objective means of determining the browsing capacity of a tree population.

  3. Vegetation Survey

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentaries
    3. Original Articles
    4. Vegetation Survey
    5. Forum
    6. Editorial Response
    1. Grassland vegetation of the Molinio-Arrhenatheretea class in the NW Balkan Peninsula (pages 591–603)

      Urban Šilc, Svetlana Aćić, Željko Škvorc, Daniel Krstonošić, Jozo Franjić and Zora Dajić Stevanović

      Article first published online: 21 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12094

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      We classified 3635 relevés of the class Molinio-Arrhenatheretea from the NW Balkans. The floristic composition and ecological conditions of mesic meadows and pastures from a large geographical region were described. We made a list of the syntaxa occurring in the region.

  4. Forum

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentaries
    3. Original Articles
    4. Vegetation Survey
    5. Forum
    6. Editorial Response
    1. Evidence-based vegetation management: prospects and challenges (pages 604–608)

      Per Milberg

      Article first published online: 30 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12114

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      In this Forum article, the value of an evidence-based approach to applied vegetation research is discussed. The benefit is an increased societal value of research finds. As such an approach would affect the methods of analysing, reporting and evaluating vegetation research, there are also challenges involved.

  5. Editorial Response

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentaries
    3. Original Articles
    4. Vegetation Survey
    5. Forum
    6. Editorial Response
    1. You have free access to this content
      Transfer of scientific knowledge to practitioners: Do we need a reform of the journal policy? (pages 609–610)

      Milan Chytrý, Alessandro Chiarucci, Valério D. Pillar and Meelis Pärtel

      Article first published online: 17 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12113

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      Milberg (2014, this issue) argues that scientific journals do not adequately respond to the practical needs of vegetation management, and proposes a reform of scientific journals such as Applied Vegetation Science. As the Chief Editors, we agree that more efforts are needed to transfer scientific knowledge to applications, but we cannot agree with some solutions proposed by Milberg.

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