Applied Vegetation Science

Cover image for Vol. 19 Issue 3

July 2016

Volume 19, Issue 3

Pages 369–552

  1. Commentary

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Research Articles
    1. You have free access to this content
      A multifaceted view on the impacts of shrub encroachment (pages 369–370)

      Fernando T. Maestre, David J. Eldridge and Santiago Soliveres

      Version of Record online: 15 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12254

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Shrub encroachment, a global phenomenon with management implications, is examined in two papers in the current issue of Applied Vegetation Science. Barbosa da Silva et al. show that encroachment simplifies herbaceous community, and Pittarello et al. illustrate how pastoral practices can restore encroached grasslands. While detrimental effects of shrub encroachment on grassland vegetation are often reported, we argue for a more holistic view when assessing this land cover change.

  2. Research Articles

    1. Top of page
    2. Commentary
    3. Research Articles
    1. Sprucification in protected forests: myth or veracity? – Clues from 60 yrs survey data (pages 371–380)

      Per-Ola Hedwall and Grzegorz Mikusiński

      Version of Record online: 17 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12233

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Long-term (60 yrs) data from the National Forest Inventory representing all the protected forest in Sweden was used to study changes in tree species composition. Our results indicate that the assumed alterations in disturbance regimes that allowed a doubling of the growing stock have not simultaneously led to changes in tree species composition or the expected increase in late-successional species.

    2. Restoration of sub-alpine shrub-encroached grasslands through pastoral practices: effects on vegetation structure and botanical composition (pages 381–390)

      Marco Pittarello, Massimiliano Probo, Michele Lonati and Giampiero Lombardi

      Version of Record online: 1 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12222

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Two different pastoral practices using targeted grazing were implemented to reverse shrub-encroachment of sub-alpine semi-natural grasslands. The arrangement of temporary night camp areas for cattle over shrub-encroached grasslands appeared to be a very effective practice to reduce shrub-encroachment, restore former meso-eutrophic grassland composition and increase plant diversity, herbage mass and forage quality.

    3. Shrub encroachment influences herbaceous communities in flooded grasslands of a neotropical savanna wetland (pages 391–400)

      Fernando Henrique Barbosa da Silva, Julia Arieira, Pia Parolin, Cátia Nunes da Cunha and Wolfgang Johannes Junk

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12230

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The encroachment of woody species has been globally reported over arid and semi-arid biomes, and has been associated with a decrease in cover and number of herbaceous species. We examined the effects of shrubby encroachment over the herbaceous community in tropical floodable grasslands. We found that encroachment impoverishes the herbaceous community decreasing the cover of important forage resources.

    4. Influence of river channelization and the invasive shrub, Ligustrum sinense, on oak (Quercus spp.) growth rates in bottomland hardwood forests (pages 401–412)

      Meghan Foard, Dorian J. Burnette, David R. L. Burge and Travis D. Marsico

      Version of Record online: 28 APR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12240

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Can invasive shrubs and stream-flow impact the structure of the forest canopy? We used tree-ring analyses to investigate whether river channelization and a common invasive shrub, Chinese privet, affect canopy tree growth rates in BLHFs. We found that river channelization promoted faster canopy oak growth, and privet presence reduced the channelization advantage by slowing growth and possibly accelerating tree mortality.

    5. Semi-arid vegetation response to antecedent climate and water balance windows (pages 413–429)

      David P. Thoma, Seth M. Munson, Kathryn M. Irvine, Dana L. Witwicki and Erin L. Bunting

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12232

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Water availability strongly determines productivity in semiarid grasslands but variation in abundance and timing adds complexity. We used high frequency satellite observations of vegetation response to determine the antecedent timing and which measures of water availability most strongly influence vegetation.

    6. Cumulative drought and land-use impacts on perennial vegetation across a North American dryland region (pages 430–441)

      Seth M. Munson, A. Lexine Long, Cynthia S.A. Wallace and Robert H. Webb

      Version of Record online: 11 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12228

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The decline of perennial vegetation in drylands can initiate land degradation. Munson et al. (this issue) used remote sensing to determine decadal changes of perennial vegetation across the Mojave Desert, USA in the early 21st century. They highlight how prolonged drought, soil properties, wildfire, visitor use, and protected area status have broadly affected perennial vegetation cover.

    7. Long-term late season mowing maintains diversity in southern US tallgrass prairie invaded by Bothriochloa ischaemum (pages 442–453)

      Justin R. Dee, Shyam M. Thomas, Steven D. Thompson and Michael W. Palmer

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12227

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Our 18 year study pertains to the effects of mowing on species richness and composition within a southern U.S. tallgrass prairie invaded by Bothriochloa ischaemum. We found that mowing in general positively influences species richness, while sustained mowing in the later part of the season promotes the highest levels of richness, concomitant with the lowest relative cover of the exotic.

    8. Impact of stocking rate on species diversity and composition of a subtropical grassland in Argentina (pages 454–461)

      Rafael Pizzio, Cristina Herrero-Jáuregui, Mariano Pizzio and Martin Oesterheld

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12229

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      In an 8-yr experiment in a Subtropical grassland of Argentina, we showed that stocking rate had no effect on species richness, reduced diversity through an effect on evenness, and increased the proportion of prostrate species. Species composition markedly changed as a result of time and stocking rate. Grazing management should monitor plant species composition and diversity.

    9. Negligible structural development and edge influence on the understorey at 16–17-yr-old clear-cut edges in black spruce forest (pages 462–473)

      Karen A. Harper, Pierre Drapeau, Daniel Lesieur and Yves Bergeron

      Version of Record online: 7 FEB 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12226

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      At clearcut edges in black spruce forest, there was reduced edge influence on the understorey but little evidence of structural change between 2–5 and 16–17 yr after edge creation. Instead, forest influence from clearcut edges on the regenerating disturbed area may be more prominent in black spruce forest.

    10. Scale-dependent effects of coppicing on the species pool of late successional beech forests in the central Apennines, Italy (pages 474–485)

      Giandiego Campetella, Roberto Canullo, Alessandro Gimona, Janos Garadnai, Alessandro Chiarucci, Daniele Giorgini, Elia Angelini, Marco Cervellini, Stefano Chelli and Sandor Bartha

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12235

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The present study highlights the importance of a multiple scale approach in studying the effect of forest management on diversity. More than the management itself, the landscape heterogeneity seemed to influence the species richness at the plot scale, and the beech specialist species richness at the forest patch scale.

    11. Former charcoal kiln platforms as microhabitats affecting understorey vegetation in Mediterranean forests (pages 486–497)

      Elisa Carrari, Evy Ampoorter, Kris Verheyen, Andrea Coppi and Federico Selvi

      Version of Record online: 30 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12238

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The paper describes for the first time the legacy effects of abandoned charcoal kiln platforms on the understorey vegetation in Mediterranean woodlands. Due to altered soil and light conditions, understorey showed compositional differences and increased diversity and biomass. Such effects show that the old platforms represent persistent anthropogenic microhabitats enhancing fine-scale heterogeneity and forest plant diversity. Conservation measures are suggested.

    12. Vegetation assessment of native tree species in Broussonetia papyrifera-dominated degraded forest landscape in southern Ghana (pages 498–507)

      Victor K. Agyeman, Shalom D. Addo-Danso, Boateng Kyereh and Isaac K. Abebrese

      Version of Record online: 13 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12241

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We assessed the potential of Broussonetia papyrifera, an invasive tree species, to facilitate natural regeneration of native tree species. The abundance of native pioneers declined with increasing abundance of B. papyrifera. We found both shade-tolerant and shade-intolerant species in habitat dominated by B. papyrifera. The integrity of undisturbed forest patches should be protected to reduce the spread of B. papyrifera.

    13. Tropical forest restoration enriches vascular epiphyte recovery (pages 508–517)

      John Leighton Reid, José Miguel Chaves-Fallas, Karen D. Holl and Rakan A. Zahawi

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12234

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Epiphytes make up 10% of the world's vascular plants, but they are rarely considered in ecological restoration. We show that 10-yr old tree plantations hosted twice as many epiphyte species as naturally regenerating forests. Restoration sites near existing forests had richer epiphyte recolonization than isolated sites, suggesting that restoration ecologists can accelerate epiphyte succession by planting trees in appropriate landscapes.

    14. Characterization of Brazilian forest types utilizing canopy height profiles derived from airborne laser scanning (pages 518–527)

      Eric B. Görgens, Carlos P.B. Soares, Matheus H. Nunes and Luiz C. E. Rodriguez

      Version of Record online: 11 JAN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12224

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      This study explores how airborne laser scanning surveys can contribute to characterizing and discriminating different Brazilian forest types. Canopy height profiles were modelled for each forest type using a two-parameter Weibull distribution. Each forest presented distinct characteristics regarding the canopy height profile, resulting in specific recommendations on grid cell size and sampling intensity levels.

    15. Distribution modelling of vegetation types in the boreal–alpine ecotone (pages 528–540)

      Heidrun A. Ullerud, Anders Bryn and Kari Klanderud

      Version of Record online: 2 JUN 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12236

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Vegetation mapping based on field surveys is time-consuming and expensive. Distribution modeling might be used to overcome these challenges. In this study, vegetation was mapped in two comparable neighboring areas, one for model training, the other for model projection. This study, with results evaluated by independent data, show that modeling of vegetation types is possible.

    16. Validation of a classification protocol: meeting the prospect requirement and ensuring distinctiveness when assigning forest development phases (pages 541–552)

      Eric K. Zenner, JeriLynn E. Peck, Martina L. Hobi and Brigitte Commarmot

      Version of Record online: 3 MAR 2016 | DOI: 10.1111/avsc.12231

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Forest development phase assignments from structure-based classification protocols have elicited generalizations about the signature texture of old-growth forest. But what if the classification rules do not work? One such protocol fails to meet the prospect requirement, so we modified it to correct this bias and achieve distinctiveness of primary attributes among phases in the resulting typology of an old-growth beech forest.