Effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a single dose of rivaroxaban, an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor

Authors

Errata

This article is corrected by:

  1. Errata: Corrigendum Volume 76, Issue 3, 489, Article first published online: 20 August 2013

Correspondence

Dr Dagmar Kubitza, MD, Clinical Pharmacology, Bayer Pharma AG, Aprather Weg 18a, 42113 Wuppertal, Germany.

Tel.: +49 202 36 4504

Fax: +49 202 36 4115

E-mail: dagmar.kubitza@bayer.com

Abstract

Aim

This study investigated the effects of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a single dose of rivaroxaban (10 mg), an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor.

Method

This single centre, non-randomized, non-blinded study included subjects with mild (n = 8) or moderate hepatic impairment (n = 8), according to the Child–Pugh classification, and gender-matched healthy subjects (n = 16).

Results

Rivaroxaban was well tolerated irrespective of hepatic function. Mild hepatic impairment did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of rivaroxaban, compared with healthy subjects. However, in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment, total body clearance was decreased, leading to a significant increase in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC). The least-squares (LS)-mean values for AUC were 1.15-fold [90% confidence interval (CI) 0.85, 1.57] and 2.27-fold (90% CI 1.68, 3.07) higher in subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment, respectively, than in healthy subjects. Consequently, the pharmacodynamic responses were significantly enhanced in subjects with moderate hepatic impairment. For inhibition of Factor Xa, increases in the area under the effect–time curve and the maximum effect were observed, with LS-mean ratios of 2.59 and 1.24, respectively, vs. healthy subjects. Prolongation of prothrombin time was similar in healthy subjects and those with mild hepatic impairment, but was significantly enhanced in those with moderate hepatic impairment.

Conclusion

Moderate (but not mild) hepatic impairment reduced total body clearance of rivaroxaban after a single 10 mg dose, leading to increased rivaroxaban exposure and pharmacodynamic effects.

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