Clinical Trials Identifier: NCT00815854, Grants.gov.
Metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: dietary and lifestyle factors compared to the general population
Article first published online: 13 DEC 2013
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Volume 16, Issue 3, pages 277–288, May 2014
How to Cite
Metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia: dietary and lifestyle factors compared to the general population. Bipolar Disord 2014: 16: 277–288. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd., , , , , , , , , , .
- Issue published online: 5 MAY 2014
- Article first published online: 13 DEC 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 1 AUG 2013
- Manuscript Received: 5 NOV 2012
- NIMH. Grant Number: R01 MH082784
- NIH-NCCR, GCRC Program. Grant Number: UL1RR024986
- Chemistry Core of the Michigan Diabetes Research and Training Center. Grant Number: NIH5P60 DK 20572
- Washtenaw Community Health Organization
- The Brain and Behavior Research Foundation
- Prechter Longitudinal Study of Bipolar Disorder
- atypical antipsychotics;
- bipolar disorder;
- dietary intake;
- metabolic syndrome;
Since a poor diet is often cited as a contributor to metabolic syndrome for subjects diagnosed with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, we sought to examine dietary intake, cigarette smoking, and physical activity in these populations and compare them with those for the general population.
Individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder (n = 116) and schizophrenia (n = 143) were assessed for dietary intake, lifestyle habits, and metabolic syndrome and compared to age-, gender-, and race-matched subjects from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2000. Additionally, matched subgroups within the patient populations were compared to elicit any differences.
As expected, the metabolic syndrome rate was higher in the samples with bipolar disorder (33%) and schizophrenia (47%) compared to matched NHANES controls (17% and 11%, respectively), and not different between the patient groups. Surprisingly, both subjects with bipolar disorder and those with schizophrenia consumed fewer total calories, carbohydrates and fats, as well as more fiber (p < 0.03), compared to NHANES controls. No dietary or activity differences between patient participants with and without metabolic syndrome were found. Subjects with schizophrenia had significantly lower total and low-density cholesterol levels (p < 0.0001) compared to NHANES controls. Subjects with bipolar disorder smoked less (p = 0.001), exercised more (p = 0.004), and had lower body mass indexes (p = 0.009) compared to subjects with schizophrenia.
Counter to predictions, few dietary differences could be discerned between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and NHANES control groups. The subjects with bipolar disorder exhibited healthier behaviors than the patients with schizophrenia. Additional research regarding metabolic syndrome mechanisms, focusing on non-dietary contributions, is needed.