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Figure S1. Changes in brightness (overall reflectance) of ten individual crabs over the course of 48 h, illustrating the level of variation that exists among individuals. Individuals 9 and 10 were collected later, and the start and end of their 48-h measurement period differed from that of the other individuals.

Figure S2. Changes in the blue–yellow colour of ten individual crabs over the course of 48 h, illustrating the variation that exists among individuals. Individuals 9 and 10 were collected later, and the start and end of their 48-h measurement period differed from that of the other individuals.

Figure S3. Individual differences in brightness for individuals on the black and white substrates. Four individuals (dashed lines) became slightly darker on the white substrate, whereas 12 individuals became lighter on the white substrate (solid lines). All four individuals that became darker on the white substrate were placed on the white substrate second, and were photographed on the black substrate at midday and the white substrate at 1800 h. It is therefore possible that these individuals became darker if they were changing to their night-time appearance.

Figure S4. A trichromatic reflectance-based colour space plot based on longwave (LW), mediumwave (MW), and shortwave (SW) reflectance values converted to (x, y) coordinates, comparing individual crabs photographed at 1200 h (red symbols) and 0000 h (blue symbols), versus the samples of the sand background colour from the beach where the crabs were collected. Crabs became more yellow, like sand, during the day.

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